We theoretically demonstrate and experimentally confirm the major influence of gain dynamics on soliton molecules that self-assemble in mode-locked lasers. Both slow gain recovery and depletion play a pivotal role in the formation of chirped soliton molecules characterized by an increasing separation from leading to trailing pulses. These chirped molecules actually consist of many pulses and may be termed macromolecules. They are experimentally observed in a fiber laser and numerically modeled by an approach that properly includes the slow gain dynamics. Furthermore, it is shown that these processes stabilize soliton trains in fiber lasers by inhibiting internal oscillations.
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