Abstract

We present a technique for nonintrusive and standoff detection of large organic molecules using coherent microwave Rayleigh scattering from plasma produced by structure sensitive photoionization through Rydberg states. We test the method on 1,4-diazobicyclooctane. Transitions between the 3s Rydberg state and higher lying Rydberg states are probed using two-color photoionization with 266nm photons and photons in the range of 4602400nm. Photoionization is detected using microwave radiation, which is scattered by the unbounded electrons. Highly resolved Rydberg spectra are acquired in vacuum and in air.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  2. N. Kuthirummal and P. M. Weber, Chem. Phys. Lett. 378, 647 (2003).
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  7. F. Rudakov and P. M. Weber, Chem. Phys. Lett. 470, 187 (2009).
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    [CrossRef]
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  13. A. Dogariu and R. B. Miles, Appl. Opt. 50, A68 (2011).
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  14. Y. P. Raizer, in Gas Discharge Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991), p. 63.
  15. Chemspider http://www.chemspider.com .
  16. M. J. Watkins and M. C. R. Cockett, J. Chem. Phys. 113, 10560 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. NIST Webbook, http://webbook.nist.gov .

2011

S. Deb, B. A. Bayes, M. P. Minitti, and P. M. Weber, J. Phys. Chem. A 115, 1804 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Dogariu and R. B. Miles, Appl. Opt. 50, A68 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

X. Liang, M. G. Levi, S. Deb, J. D. Geiser, R. M. Stratt, and P. M. Weber, J. Mol. Struct. 978, 250 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

F. Rudakov and P. M. Weber, Chem. Phys. Lett. 470, 187 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. D. Cardoza, F. M. Rudakov, N. Hansen, and P. M. Weber, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 165, 5 (2008).

2007

M. N. Shneider, Z. Zhang, and R. B. Miles, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 123103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, M. N. Shneider, and R. B. Miles, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 265005 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Minitti and P. M. Weber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 253004 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Cardoza and P. M. Weber, J. Chem. Phys. 127, 036101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

Z. Zhang, M. N. Shneider, and R. B. Miles, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 074912 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

N. Kuthirummal and P. M. Weber, Chem. Phys. Lett. 378, 647 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. J. Watkins and M. C. R. Cockett, J. Chem. Phys. 113, 10560 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1980

D. Dill and C. Jungen, J. Phys. Chem. 84, 2116 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bayes, B. A.

S. Deb, B. A. Bayes, M. P. Minitti, and P. M. Weber, J. Phys. Chem. A 115, 1804 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cardoza, J. D.

J. D. Cardoza, F. M. Rudakov, N. Hansen, and P. M. Weber, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 165, 5 (2008).

J. D. Cardoza and P. M. Weber, J. Chem. Phys. 127, 036101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cockett, M. C. R.

M. J. Watkins and M. C. R. Cockett, J. Chem. Phys. 113, 10560 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Deb, S.

S. Deb, B. A. Bayes, M. P. Minitti, and P. M. Weber, J. Phys. Chem. A 115, 1804 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Liang, M. G. Levi, S. Deb, J. D. Geiser, R. M. Stratt, and P. M. Weber, J. Mol. Struct. 978, 250 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dill, D.

D. Dill and C. Jungen, J. Phys. Chem. 84, 2116 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Dogariu, A.

Geiser, J. D.

X. Liang, M. G. Levi, S. Deb, J. D. Geiser, R. M. Stratt, and P. M. Weber, J. Mol. Struct. 978, 250 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, N.

J. D. Cardoza, F. M. Rudakov, N. Hansen, and P. M. Weber, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 165, 5 (2008).

Jungen, C.

D. Dill and C. Jungen, J. Phys. Chem. 84, 2116 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kuthirummal, N.

N. Kuthirummal and P. M. Weber, Chem. Phys. Lett. 378, 647 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Levi, M. G.

X. Liang, M. G. Levi, S. Deb, J. D. Geiser, R. M. Stratt, and P. M. Weber, J. Mol. Struct. 978, 250 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liang, X.

X. Liang, M. G. Levi, S. Deb, J. D. Geiser, R. M. Stratt, and P. M. Weber, J. Mol. Struct. 978, 250 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Miles, R. B.

A. Dogariu and R. B. Miles, Appl. Opt. 50, A68 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, M. N. Shneider, and R. B. Miles, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 265005 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Shneider, Z. Zhang, and R. B. Miles, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 123103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, M. N. Shneider, and R. B. Miles, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 074912 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Minitti, M. P.

S. Deb, B. A. Bayes, M. P. Minitti, and P. M. Weber, J. Phys. Chem. A 115, 1804 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Minitti and P. M. Weber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 253004 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Raizer, Y. P.

Y. P. Raizer, in Gas Discharge Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991), p. 63.

Rudakov, F.

F. Rudakov and P. M. Weber, Chem. Phys. Lett. 470, 187 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rudakov, F. M.

J. D. Cardoza, F. M. Rudakov, N. Hansen, and P. M. Weber, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 165, 5 (2008).

Shneider, M. N.

M. N. Shneider, Z. Zhang, and R. B. Miles, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 123103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, M. N. Shneider, and R. B. Miles, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 265005 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, M. N. Shneider, and R. B. Miles, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 074912 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stratt, R. M.

X. Liang, M. G. Levi, S. Deb, J. D. Geiser, R. M. Stratt, and P. M. Weber, J. Mol. Struct. 978, 250 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Watkins, M. J.

M. J. Watkins and M. C. R. Cockett, J. Chem. Phys. 113, 10560 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weber, P. M.

S. Deb, B. A. Bayes, M. P. Minitti, and P. M. Weber, J. Phys. Chem. A 115, 1804 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Liang, M. G. Levi, S. Deb, J. D. Geiser, R. M. Stratt, and P. M. Weber, J. Mol. Struct. 978, 250 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Rudakov and P. M. Weber, Chem. Phys. Lett. 470, 187 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Cardoza, F. M. Rudakov, N. Hansen, and P. M. Weber, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 165, 5 (2008).

M. P. Minitti and P. M. Weber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 253004 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Cardoza and P. M. Weber, J. Chem. Phys. 127, 036101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Kuthirummal and P. M. Weber, Chem. Phys. Lett. 378, 647 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yinon, J.

J. Yinon, Counterterrorist Detection Techniques of Explosives (Elsevier Science, 2007).

Zhang, Z.

M. N. Shneider, Z. Zhang, and R. B. Miles, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 123103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, M. N. Shneider, and R. B. Miles, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 265005 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, M. N. Shneider, and R. B. Miles, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 074912 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Chem. Phys. Lett.

N. Kuthirummal and P. M. Weber, Chem. Phys. Lett. 378, 647 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Rudakov and P. M. Weber, Chem. Phys. Lett. 470, 187 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

M. N. Shneider, Z. Zhang, and R. B. Miles, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 123103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, M. N. Shneider, and R. B. Miles, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 074912 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

M. J. Watkins and M. C. R. Cockett, J. Chem. Phys. 113, 10560 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Cardoza and P. M. Weber, J. Chem. Phys. 127, 036101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom.

J. D. Cardoza, F. M. Rudakov, N. Hansen, and P. M. Weber, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 165, 5 (2008).

J. Mol. Struct.

X. Liang, M. G. Levi, S. Deb, J. D. Geiser, R. M. Stratt, and P. M. Weber, J. Mol. Struct. 978, 250 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem.

D. Dill and C. Jungen, J. Phys. Chem. 84, 2116 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. A

S. Deb, B. A. Bayes, M. P. Minitti, and P. M. Weber, J. Phys. Chem. A 115, 1804 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

Z. Zhang, M. N. Shneider, and R. B. Miles, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 265005 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Minitti and P. M. Weber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 253004 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Yinon, Counterterrorist Detection Techniques of Explosives (Elsevier Science, 2007).

Y. P. Raizer, in Gas Discharge Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991), p. 63.

Chemspider http://www.chemspider.com .

NIST Webbook, http://webbook.nist.gov .

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup. (a) Laser design. (b) Microwave design. Insert shows OPO pulse energy as a function of the wavelength.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Typical microwave scattering signal from plasma produced by photoionization of DABCO molecules in vacuum and in air at room temperature.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

DABCO photoionization. (a) Photoionization scheme. (b) REMPI spectrum in vacuum (black line) and in air (red line). The spectra were scaled to have roughly the same intensities.

Equations (1)

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En=Ry(nδl,m)2,

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