Abstract

We demonstrate optimized viewing-angle characteristics from top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by integrating a periodic microstructure into the cavity. A holographic lithography technique combined with filling process of the groove by spin coating of a polymer film has been employed to enable its periodically and gradually changed cavity length and suppress the viewing-angle dependence of the peak emission wavelength and intensity. The theoretical and experimental results support that the proposed microstructured cavity can resolve the angular-dependence effect in a very simple and effective way, and a desired omnidirectional emission has been obtained.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. H. Li, J. Huang, and Y. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 173505 (2007).
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  2. A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, R. H. Jordan, T. M. Miller, R. E. Slusher, and J. M. Phillipse, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6954 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Feng, T. Okamoto, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241109 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. C. Liu and D. P. Tsai, Phys. Rev. B 65, 155423 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2010

M. C. Gather, N. M. Kronenberg, and K. Meerholz, Adv. Mater. 22, 4634 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

Q. Wang, Z. Q. Deng, and D. G. Ma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 233306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

J. H. Li, J. Huang, and Y. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 173505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. Feng, T. Okamoto, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

C. C. Wu, C. L. Lin, P. Y. Hsieh, and H. H. Chiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3966 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Jiang, P. Herguth, T. Sassa, and A. K-Y. Jen, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 3553 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. Mun, J. W. Lee, J. K. Park, K. S. Lee, and C. S. Yoon, Opt. Mater. 21, 379 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

W. C. Liu and D. P. Tsai, Phys. Rev. B 65, 155423 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997

N. Tessler, S. Burns, H. Becker, and R. H. Friend, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 556 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, R. H. Jordan, T. M. Miller, R. E. Slusher, and J. M. Phillipse, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6954 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

E. F. Schubert, N. E. J. Hunt, M. Micovic, R. J. Malik, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and G. J. Zydzik, Science 265, 943 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Becker, H.

N. Tessler, S. Burns, H. Becker, and R. H. Friend, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 556 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Burns, S.

N. Tessler, S. Burns, H. Becker, and R. H. Friend, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 556 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, H. H.

C. C. Wu, C. L. Lin, P. Y. Hsieh, and H. H. Chiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3966 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

E. F. Schubert, N. E. J. Hunt, M. Micovic, R. J. Malik, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and G. J. Zydzik, Science 265, 943 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Deng, Z. Q.

Q. Wang, Z. Q. Deng, and D. G. Ma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 233306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dodabalapur, A.

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, R. H. Jordan, T. M. Miller, R. E. Slusher, and J. M. Phillipse, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6954 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Feng, J.

J. Feng, T. Okamoto, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Friend, R. H.

N. Tessler, S. Burns, H. Becker, and R. H. Friend, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 556 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gather, M. C.

M. C. Gather, N. M. Kronenberg, and K. Meerholz, Adv. Mater. 22, 4634 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Herguth, P.

X. Jiang, P. Herguth, T. Sassa, and A. K-Y. Jen, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 3553 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, P. Y.

C. C. Wu, C. L. Lin, P. Y. Hsieh, and H. H. Chiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3966 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

J. H. Li, J. Huang, and Y. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 173505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hunt, N. E. J.

E. F. Schubert, N. E. J. Hunt, M. Micovic, R. J. Malik, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and G. J. Zydzik, Science 265, 943 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K-Y.

X. Jiang, P. Herguth, T. Sassa, and A. K-Y. Jen, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 3553 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.

X. Jiang, P. Herguth, T. Sassa, and A. K-Y. Jen, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 3553 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, R. H.

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, R. H. Jordan, T. M. Miller, R. E. Slusher, and J. M. Phillipse, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6954 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

J. Feng, T. Okamoto, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kronenberg, N. M.

M. C. Gather, N. M. Kronenberg, and K. Meerholz, Adv. Mater. 22, 4634 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. W.

J. Mun, J. W. Lee, J. K. Park, K. S. Lee, and C. S. Yoon, Opt. Mater. 21, 379 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. S.

J. Mun, J. W. Lee, J. K. Park, K. S. Lee, and C. S. Yoon, Opt. Mater. 21, 379 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, J. H.

J. H. Li, J. Huang, and Y. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 173505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. L.

C. C. Wu, C. L. Lin, P. Y. Hsieh, and H. H. Chiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3966 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W. C.

W. C. Liu and D. P. Tsai, Phys. Rev. B 65, 155423 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ma, D. G.

Q. Wang, Z. Q. Deng, and D. G. Ma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 233306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Malik, R. J.

E. F. Schubert, N. E. J. Hunt, M. Micovic, R. J. Malik, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and G. J. Zydzik, Science 265, 943 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Meerholz, K.

M. C. Gather, N. M. Kronenberg, and K. Meerholz, Adv. Mater. 22, 4634 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Micovic, M.

E. F. Schubert, N. E. J. Hunt, M. Micovic, R. J. Malik, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and G. J. Zydzik, Science 265, 943 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Miller, T. M.

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, R. H. Jordan, T. M. Miller, R. E. Slusher, and J. M. Phillipse, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6954 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mun, J.

J. Mun, J. W. Lee, J. K. Park, K. S. Lee, and C. S. Yoon, Opt. Mater. 21, 379 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, T.

J. Feng, T. Okamoto, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. K.

J. Mun, J. W. Lee, J. K. Park, K. S. Lee, and C. S. Yoon, Opt. Mater. 21, 379 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phillipse, J. M.

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, R. H. Jordan, T. M. Miller, R. E. Slusher, and J. M. Phillipse, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6954 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rothberg, L. J.

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, R. H. Jordan, T. M. Miller, R. E. Slusher, and J. M. Phillipse, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6954 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sassa, T.

X. Jiang, P. Herguth, T. Sassa, and A. K-Y. Jen, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 3553 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

E. F. Schubert, N. E. J. Hunt, M. Micovic, R. J. Malik, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and G. J. Zydzik, Science 265, 943 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sivco, D. L.

E. F. Schubert, N. E. J. Hunt, M. Micovic, R. J. Malik, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and G. J. Zydzik, Science 265, 943 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, R. H. Jordan, T. M. Miller, R. E. Slusher, and J. M. Phillipse, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6954 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tessler, N.

N. Tessler, S. Burns, H. Becker, and R. H. Friend, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 556 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, D. P.

W. C. Liu and D. P. Tsai, Phys. Rev. B 65, 155423 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

Q. Wang, Z. Q. Deng, and D. G. Ma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 233306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. C.

C. C. Wu, C. L. Lin, P. Y. Hsieh, and H. H. Chiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3966 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

J. H. Li, J. Huang, and Y. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 173505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, C. S.

J. Mun, J. W. Lee, J. K. Park, K. S. Lee, and C. S. Yoon, Opt. Mater. 21, 379 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zydzik, G. J.

E. F. Schubert, N. E. J. Hunt, M. Micovic, R. J. Malik, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and G. J. Zydzik, Science 265, 943 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

M. C. Gather, N. M. Kronenberg, and K. Meerholz, Adv. Mater. 22, 4634 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

N. Tessler, S. Burns, H. Becker, and R. H. Friend, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 556 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang, Z. Q. Deng, and D. G. Ma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 233306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Li, J. Huang, and Y. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 173505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Wu, C. L. Lin, P. Y. Hsieh, and H. H. Chiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3966 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Feng, T. Okamoto, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

X. Jiang, P. Herguth, T. Sassa, and A. K-Y. Jen, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 3553 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, R. H. Jordan, T. M. Miller, R. E. Slusher, and J. M. Phillipse, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6954 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater.

J. Mun, J. W. Lee, J. K. Park, K. S. Lee, and C. S. Yoon, Opt. Mater. 21, 379 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

W. C. Liu and D. P. Tsai, Phys. Rev. B 65, 155423 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Science

E. F. Schubert, N. E. J. Hunt, M. Micovic, R. J. Malik, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and G. J. Zydzik, Science 265, 943 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic structure of the (a) planar and microstructured cavity, and (b) their simulated emission spectra with various groove depth and measured PL spectrum of Alq3 thin film.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Configuration of the (a) microstructured TOLED, (b) surface morphology of photoresist, (c) Ag anode, and (d) PVK: m-MTDATA.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

EL spectra of the microstructured TOLEDs at various viewing angles off the surface normal and from the direction of both (a) perpendicular and (b) parallel to the grooves of the microstructure. Inset in (a): EL spectra of the planar TOLEDs at various viewing angles and photograph of the green TOLEDs with and without the microstructure at observation angles of 0° and 60°. Inset in (b): Polar plots of the emission intensities of microstructured and planar TOLEDs, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) J-V-L and (b) efficiency-voltage characteristics of TOLEDs without and with the microstructure.

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