Abstract

A customized IQ modulator driven by equal-amplitude binary signals for generating offset-free 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) is proposed and validated through simulations. The incorporation of tunable splitters demonstrates the feasibility of the transmitter and enables more efficient constellations such as hexagonal 16-QAM.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Colavolpe, T. Foggi, E. Forestieri, and G. Prati, J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 2357 (2009).
  2. A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, B. Zhu, and D. W. Peckham, J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 373 (2011).
  3. M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, S. L. Jansen, T. Wuth, D. van den Borne, and H. de Waardt, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1150 (2010).
  4. M. Nakazawa, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OThG1.
  5. E. Ip and J. M. Kahn, J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4110 (2005).
  6. M. Secondini, E. Forestieri, and F. Cavaliere, in International Conference on Photonics in Switching (IEEE, 2009), paper ThII3-4.
  7. S. Yan, D. Wang, Y. Gao, C. Lu, A. P. T. Lau, L. Liu, and X. Xu, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OW3H.3.
  8. C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, P. J. Winzer, and A. H. Gnauck, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OMU2.
  9. G.-W. Lu, T. Sakamoto, A. Chiba, T. Kawanishi, T. Miyazaki, K. Higuma, M. Sudo, and J. Ichikawa, in 36th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) 2010 (IEEE, 2010), paper Mo.1.F.3.
  10. R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, T. Pinguet, J. Li, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, L. He, A. Novack, E. Lim, T. Liow, H. Teo, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OM2E.6.
  11. G. Reed, Silicon Photonics (Wiley, 2008).

2011

2010

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, S. L. Jansen, T. Wuth, D. van den Borne, and H. de Waardt, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1150 (2010).

2009

2005

Alfiad, M. S.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, S. L. Jansen, T. Wuth, D. van den Borne, and H. de Waardt, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1150 (2010).

Baehr-Jones, T.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, T. Pinguet, J. Li, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, L. He, A. Novack, E. Lim, T. Liow, H. Teo, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OM2E.6.

Cavaliere, F.

M. Secondini, E. Forestieri, and F. Cavaliere, in International Conference on Photonics in Switching (IEEE, 2009), paper ThII3-4.

Chandrasekhar, S.

Chiba, A.

G.-W. Lu, T. Sakamoto, A. Chiba, T. Kawanishi, T. Miyazaki, K. Higuma, M. Sudo, and J. Ichikawa, in 36th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) 2010 (IEEE, 2010), paper Mo.1.F.3.

Colavolpe, G.

de Waardt, H.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, S. L. Jansen, T. Wuth, D. van den Borne, and H. de Waardt, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1150 (2010).

Ding, R.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, T. Pinguet, J. Li, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, L. He, A. Novack, E. Lim, T. Liow, H. Teo, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OM2E.6.

Doerr, C. R.

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, P. J. Winzer, and A. H. Gnauck, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OMU2.

Foggi, T.

Forestieri, E.

G. Colavolpe, T. Foggi, E. Forestieri, and G. Prati, J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 2357 (2009).

M. Secondini, E. Forestieri, and F. Cavaliere, in International Conference on Photonics in Switching (IEEE, 2009), paper ThII3-4.

Gao, Y.

S. Yan, D. Wang, Y. Gao, C. Lu, A. P. T. Lau, L. Liu, and X. Xu, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OW3H.3.

Gnauck, A. H.

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, B. Zhu, and D. W. Peckham, J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 373 (2011).

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, P. J. Winzer, and A. H. Gnauck, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OMU2.

Harris, N. C.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, T. Pinguet, J. Li, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, L. He, A. Novack, E. Lim, T. Liow, H. Teo, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OM2E.6.

He, L.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, T. Pinguet, J. Li, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, L. He, A. Novack, E. Lim, T. Liow, H. Teo, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OM2E.6.

Higuma, K.

G.-W. Lu, T. Sakamoto, A. Chiba, T. Kawanishi, T. Miyazaki, K. Higuma, M. Sudo, and J. Ichikawa, in 36th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) 2010 (IEEE, 2010), paper Mo.1.F.3.

Hochberg, M.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, T. Pinguet, J. Li, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, L. He, A. Novack, E. Lim, T. Liow, H. Teo, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OM2E.6.

Ichikawa, J.

G.-W. Lu, T. Sakamoto, A. Chiba, T. Kawanishi, T. Miyazaki, K. Higuma, M. Sudo, and J. Ichikawa, in 36th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) 2010 (IEEE, 2010), paper Mo.1.F.3.

Ip, E.

Jansen, S. L.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, S. L. Jansen, T. Wuth, D. van den Borne, and H. de Waardt, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1150 (2010).

Kahn, J. M.

Kawanishi, T.

G.-W. Lu, T. Sakamoto, A. Chiba, T. Kawanishi, T. Miyazaki, K. Higuma, M. Sudo, and J. Ichikawa, in 36th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) 2010 (IEEE, 2010), paper Mo.1.F.3.

Kuschnerov, M.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, S. L. Jansen, T. Wuth, D. van den Borne, and H. de Waardt, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1150 (2010).

Lau, A. P. T.

S. Yan, D. Wang, Y. Gao, C. Lu, A. P. T. Lau, L. Liu, and X. Xu, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OW3H.3.

Li, J.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, T. Pinguet, J. Li, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, L. He, A. Novack, E. Lim, T. Liow, H. Teo, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OM2E.6.

Lim, E.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, T. Pinguet, J. Li, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, L. He, A. Novack, E. Lim, T. Liow, H. Teo, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OM2E.6.

Liow, T.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, T. Pinguet, J. Li, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, L. He, A. Novack, E. Lim, T. Liow, H. Teo, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OM2E.6.

Liu, L.

S. Yan, D. Wang, Y. Gao, C. Lu, A. P. T. Lau, L. Liu, and X. Xu, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OW3H.3.

Liu, X.

Lo, G.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, T. Pinguet, J. Li, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, L. He, A. Novack, E. Lim, T. Liow, H. Teo, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OM2E.6.

Lu, C.

S. Yan, D. Wang, Y. Gao, C. Lu, A. P. T. Lau, L. Liu, and X. Xu, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OW3H.3.

Lu, G.-W.

G.-W. Lu, T. Sakamoto, A. Chiba, T. Kawanishi, T. Miyazaki, K. Higuma, M. Sudo, and J. Ichikawa, in 36th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) 2010 (IEEE, 2010), paper Mo.1.F.3.

Miyazaki, T.

G.-W. Lu, T. Sakamoto, A. Chiba, T. Kawanishi, T. Miyazaki, K. Higuma, M. Sudo, and J. Ichikawa, in 36th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) 2010 (IEEE, 2010), paper Mo.1.F.3.

Nakazawa, M.

M. Nakazawa, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OThG1.

Novack, A.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, T. Pinguet, J. Li, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, L. He, A. Novack, E. Lim, T. Liow, H. Teo, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OM2E.6.

Peckham, D. W.

Pinguet, T.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, T. Pinguet, J. Li, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, L. He, A. Novack, E. Lim, T. Liow, H. Teo, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OM2E.6.

Prati, G.

Reed, G.

G. Reed, Silicon Photonics (Wiley, 2008).

Sakamoto, T.

G.-W. Lu, T. Sakamoto, A. Chiba, T. Kawanishi, T. Miyazaki, K. Higuma, M. Sudo, and J. Ichikawa, in 36th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) 2010 (IEEE, 2010), paper Mo.1.F.3.

Secondini, M.

M. Secondini, E. Forestieri, and F. Cavaliere, in International Conference on Photonics in Switching (IEEE, 2009), paper ThII3-4.

Streshinsky, M.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, T. Pinguet, J. Li, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, L. He, A. Novack, E. Lim, T. Liow, H. Teo, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OM2E.6.

Sudo, M.

G.-W. Lu, T. Sakamoto, A. Chiba, T. Kawanishi, T. Miyazaki, K. Higuma, M. Sudo, and J. Ichikawa, in 36th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) 2010 (IEEE, 2010), paper Mo.1.F.3.

Teo, H.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, T. Pinguet, J. Li, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, L. He, A. Novack, E. Lim, T. Liow, H. Teo, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OM2E.6.

van den Borne, D.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, S. L. Jansen, T. Wuth, D. van den Borne, and H. de Waardt, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1150 (2010).

Wang, D.

S. Yan, D. Wang, Y. Gao, C. Lu, A. P. T. Lau, L. Liu, and X. Xu, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OW3H.3.

Winzer, P. J.

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, B. Zhu, and D. W. Peckham, J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 373 (2011).

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, P. J. Winzer, and A. H. Gnauck, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OMU2.

Wuth, T.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, S. L. Jansen, T. Wuth, D. van den Borne, and H. de Waardt, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1150 (2010).

Xu, X.

S. Yan, D. Wang, Y. Gao, C. Lu, A. P. T. Lau, L. Liu, and X. Xu, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OW3H.3.

Yan, S.

S. Yan, D. Wang, Y. Gao, C. Lu, A. P. T. Lau, L. Liu, and X. Xu, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OW3H.3.

Zhang, L.

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, P. J. Winzer, and A. H. Gnauck, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OMU2.

Zhu, B.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, S. L. Jansen, T. Wuth, D. van den Borne, and H. de Waardt, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1150 (2010).

J. Lightwave Technol.

Other

M. Nakazawa, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OThG1.

M. Secondini, E. Forestieri, and F. Cavaliere, in International Conference on Photonics in Switching (IEEE, 2009), paper ThII3-4.

S. Yan, D. Wang, Y. Gao, C. Lu, A. P. T. Lau, L. Liu, and X. Xu, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OW3H.3.

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, P. J. Winzer, and A. H. Gnauck, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OMU2.

G.-W. Lu, T. Sakamoto, A. Chiba, T. Kawanishi, T. Miyazaki, K. Higuma, M. Sudo, and J. Ichikawa, in 36th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) 2010 (IEEE, 2010), paper Mo.1.F.3.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, T. Pinguet, J. Li, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, L. He, A. Novack, E. Lim, T. Liow, H. Teo, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OM2E.6.

G. Reed, Silicon Photonics (Wiley, 2008).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Scheme of the proposed 16-QAM transmitter, where couplers B and C exhibit a customized 80/20 power-splitting ratio for achieving an offset-free 16-QAM output constellation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Realization of the 4-APSK signal for the I arm, representing the I component of the target 16-QAM constellation.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Constellations generated at (a) the I arm, (b) the Q arm, and (c) the 16-QAM transmitter output.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Effect of splitting ratio inaccuracy on constellation efficiency.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Simulated output power for Si-photonic 1 × 2   unbalanced MZI tunable splitter with tuning section L T .

6.
6.

Generation of hexagonal 16-QAM: (a)  I arm, (b)  Q arm, and (c) transmitter output.

Equations (1)

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φ I 1 = π V I 1 V π φ I 2 = π V I 2 V π ,

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