Abstract

The position of light-emitting molecules can be identified using interferometric approaches. Standard schemes utilize constructive interference to obtain a sectioned area of interest with high detection efficiency. The examination of organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) removes the common constraint of low light levels and enables a more generalized analysis. The OLED emitters are located in the front of a metal mirror, giving rise to an approximate two-wave fringe pattern in the far field. It is demonstrated theoretically and experimentally that positions around the field nodes enable the extraction of emitter distribution details within an electroluminescent layer of only 10 nm thickness.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2011

M. C. Gather, A. Köhnen, and K. Meerholz, Adv. Mater. 23, 233 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Flämmich, D. Michaelis, and N. Danz, Org. Electron. 12, 83 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Flämmich, J. Frischeisen, D. S. Setz, D. Michaelis, B. C. Krummacher, T. D. Schmidt, W. Brütting, and N. Danz, Org. Electron. 12, 1663 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

S. L. M. van Mensfoort, M. Carvelli, M. Megens, D. Wehenkel, M. Bartyzel, H. Greiner, R. A. J. Janssen, and R. Coehoorn, Nat. Photonics 4, 329 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Perucco, N. A. Reinke, D. Rezzonico, M. Moos, and B. Ruhstaller, Opt. Express 18, A246 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Epstein, N. Tessler, and P. D. Einziger, Opt. Lett. 35, 3366 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

M. Flämmich, N. Danz, D. Michaelis, A. Bräuer, M. C. Gather, J. H. Kremer, and K. Meerholz, Appl. Opt. 48, 1507 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Gather, M. Flämmich, N. Danz, D. Michaelis, and K. Meerholz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 263301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2002

1998

1987

C. W. Tang, and S. A. VanSlyke, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1978

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, Adv. Chem. Phys. 37, 1 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bartyzel, M.

S. L. M. van Mensfoort, M. Carvelli, M. Megens, D. Wehenkel, M. Bartyzel, H. Greiner, R. A. J. Janssen, and R. Coehoorn, Nat. Photonics 4, 329 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bräuer, A.

Brütting, W.

M. Flämmich, J. Frischeisen, D. S. Setz, D. Michaelis, B. C. Krummacher, T. D. Schmidt, W. Brütting, and N. Danz, Org. Electron. 12, 1663 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Carvelli, M.

S. L. M. van Mensfoort, M. Carvelli, M. Megens, D. Wehenkel, M. Bartyzel, H. Greiner, R. A. J. Janssen, and R. Coehoorn, Nat. Photonics 4, 329 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chance, R. R.

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, Adv. Chem. Phys. 37, 1 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Coehoorn, R.

S. L. M. van Mensfoort, M. Carvelli, M. Megens, D. Wehenkel, M. Bartyzel, H. Greiner, R. A. J. Janssen, and R. Coehoorn, Nat. Photonics 4, 329 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Danz, N.

M. Flämmich, J. Frischeisen, D. S. Setz, D. Michaelis, B. C. Krummacher, T. D. Schmidt, W. Brütting, and N. Danz, Org. Electron. 12, 1663 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Flämmich, D. Michaelis, and N. Danz, Org. Electron. 12, 83 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Gather, M. Flämmich, N. Danz, D. Michaelis, and K. Meerholz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 263301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Flämmich, N. Danz, D. Michaelis, A. Bräuer, M. C. Gather, J. H. Kremer, and K. Meerholz, Appl. Opt. 48, 1507 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Danz, R. Waldhäusl, A. Bräuer, and R. Kowarschik, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Einziger, P. D.

Epstein, A.

Flämmich, M.

M. Flämmich, D. Michaelis, and N. Danz, Org. Electron. 12, 83 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Flämmich, J. Frischeisen, D. S. Setz, D. Michaelis, B. C. Krummacher, T. D. Schmidt, W. Brütting, and N. Danz, Org. Electron. 12, 1663 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Gather, M. Flämmich, N. Danz, D. Michaelis, and K. Meerholz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 263301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Flämmich, N. Danz, D. Michaelis, A. Bräuer, M. C. Gather, J. H. Kremer, and K. Meerholz, Appl. Opt. 48, 1507 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Frischeisen, J.

M. Flämmich, J. Frischeisen, D. S. Setz, D. Michaelis, B. C. Krummacher, T. D. Schmidt, W. Brütting, and N. Danz, Org. Electron. 12, 1663 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gather, M. C.

M. C. Gather, A. Köhnen, and K. Meerholz, Adv. Mater. 23, 233 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Gather, M. Flämmich, N. Danz, D. Michaelis, and K. Meerholz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 263301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Flämmich, N. Danz, D. Michaelis, A. Bräuer, M. C. Gather, J. H. Kremer, and K. Meerholz, Appl. Opt. 48, 1507 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Greiner, H.

S. L. M. van Mensfoort, M. Carvelli, M. Megens, D. Wehenkel, M. Bartyzel, H. Greiner, R. A. J. Janssen, and R. Coehoorn, Nat. Photonics 4, 329 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Janssen, R. A. J.

S. L. M. van Mensfoort, M. Carvelli, M. Megens, D. Wehenkel, M. Bartyzel, H. Greiner, R. A. J. Janssen, and R. Coehoorn, Nat. Photonics 4, 329 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Köhnen, A.

M. C. Gather, A. Köhnen, and K. Meerholz, Adv. Mater. 23, 233 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kowarschik, R.

Kremer, J. H.

Krummacher, B. C.

M. Flämmich, J. Frischeisen, D. S. Setz, D. Michaelis, B. C. Krummacher, T. D. Schmidt, W. Brütting, and N. Danz, Org. Electron. 12, 1663 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Meerholz, K.

M. C. Gather, A. Köhnen, and K. Meerholz, Adv. Mater. 23, 233 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Gather, M. Flämmich, N. Danz, D. Michaelis, and K. Meerholz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 263301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Flämmich, N. Danz, D. Michaelis, A. Bräuer, M. C. Gather, J. H. Kremer, and K. Meerholz, Appl. Opt. 48, 1507 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Megens, M.

S. L. M. van Mensfoort, M. Carvelli, M. Megens, D. Wehenkel, M. Bartyzel, H. Greiner, R. A. J. Janssen, and R. Coehoorn, Nat. Photonics 4, 329 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Michaelis, D.

M. Flämmich, D. Michaelis, and N. Danz, Org. Electron. 12, 83 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Flämmich, J. Frischeisen, D. S. Setz, D. Michaelis, B. C. Krummacher, T. D. Schmidt, W. Brütting, and N. Danz, Org. Electron. 12, 1663 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Flämmich, N. Danz, D. Michaelis, A. Bräuer, M. C. Gather, J. H. Kremer, and K. Meerholz, Appl. Opt. 48, 1507 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Gather, M. Flämmich, N. Danz, D. Michaelis, and K. Meerholz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 263301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moos, M.

Neyts, K. A.

Perucco, B.

Prock, A.

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, Adv. Chem. Phys. 37, 1 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Reinke, N. A.

Rezzonico, D.

Ruhstaller, B.

Schmidt, T. D.

M. Flämmich, J. Frischeisen, D. S. Setz, D. Michaelis, B. C. Krummacher, T. D. Schmidt, W. Brütting, and N. Danz, Org. Electron. 12, 1663 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Setz, D. S.

M. Flämmich, J. Frischeisen, D. S. Setz, D. Michaelis, B. C. Krummacher, T. D. Schmidt, W. Brütting, and N. Danz, Org. Electron. 12, 1663 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Silbey, R.

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, Adv. Chem. Phys. 37, 1 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. W.

C. W. Tang, and S. A. VanSlyke, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tessler, N.

van Mensfoort, S. L. M.

S. L. M. van Mensfoort, M. Carvelli, M. Megens, D. Wehenkel, M. Bartyzel, H. Greiner, R. A. J. Janssen, and R. Coehoorn, Nat. Photonics 4, 329 (2010).
[CrossRef]

VanSlyke, S. A.

C. W. Tang, and S. A. VanSlyke, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Waldhäusl, R.

Wehenkel, D.

S. L. M. van Mensfoort, M. Carvelli, M. Megens, D. Wehenkel, M. Bartyzel, H. Greiner, R. A. J. Janssen, and R. Coehoorn, Nat. Photonics 4, 329 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Chem. Phys.

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, Adv. Chem. Phys. 37, 1 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

M. C. Gather, A. Köhnen, and K. Meerholz, Adv. Mater. 23, 233 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. W. Tang, and S. A. VanSlyke, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Gather, M. Flämmich, N. Danz, D. Michaelis, and K. Meerholz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 263301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nat. Photonics

S. L. M. van Mensfoort, M. Carvelli, M. Megens, D. Wehenkel, M. Bartyzel, H. Greiner, R. A. J. Janssen, and R. Coehoorn, Nat. Photonics 4, 329 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Org. Electron.

M. Flämmich, D. Michaelis, and N. Danz, Org. Electron. 12, 83 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Flämmich, J. Frischeisen, D. S. Setz, D. Michaelis, B. C. Krummacher, T. D. Schmidt, W. Brütting, and N. Danz, Org. Electron. 12, 1663 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Sketch of the OLED stack that is made with three different emissive layer (EML) matrix materials. (b) Eigenvectors for the emission zone obtained by SVD for a 120 nm thick ETL, shapes for other ETL thicknesses are qualitatively similar. (c) Four largest eigenvalues plotted in log scale versus ETL thickness. Curve styles in (b) and (c) depict corresponding eigenvectors and eigenvalues.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured (a), (d), and (g) and simulated (b), (e), and (h) TE polarized radiant intensity (log intensity scale) versus emission wavelength and angle in air, where 530 nm wavelength is shown by a white line. The three rows correspond to OLEDs comprising an electron-blocking (a), (b), and (c); a balanced (d), (e), and (f); and a hole-blocking (g), (h), and (i) emissive layer matrix material. The full patterns have been fitted to obtain the corresponding distribution of emissive sites (see Fig. 3). Cross-section data examples at 530 nm (c), (f), and (i) illustrate the differences between experiments (symbols) and simulations (lines) that assume emission zones as derived for the EBL (dashed curve), balanced (solid curve), and HBL (dash-dot curve) inside the respective matrices.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Emission zones as linear combinations of the first three eigenvectors obtained for the different systems. The symbols depict positions used for numerical integration.

Equations (1)

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(Iλ1,θ1Iλ1,θNIλ2,θ1IλM,θN)=(Aλ1,θ1(p1)Aλ1,θ1(p2)Aλ1,θ1(pK)Aλ1,θN(p1)Aλ1,θN(p2)Aλ2,θ1(p1)AλM,θN(p1)AλM,θN(p2)AλM,θN(pK))(p1p2pK).

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