Abstract

In this Letter, we present a three-dimensional (3D) imaging system with axially distributed sensing (ADS) using an electronically controlled liquid crystal (LC) lens. The proposed system performed an optical image acquisition by varying the focal lengths of the LC lens without mechanical movements of an image sensor. Multiple images with slightly different perspectives were experimentally recorded, and the 3D images were reconstructed according to the ray backprojection algorithm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on 3D ADS using a LC lens. The proposed system is attractive for compact 3D sensing camera systems.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2012

C. W. Chen, Y. P. Huang, Y. C. Chang, P. H. Wang, P. C. Chen, and C. H. Tsai, Proc. SPIE 8384, 83840W (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, Y. Liu, Q. Li, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Opt. 51, 2568 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

M. Cho, M. Daneshpanah, I. Moon, and B. Javidi, Proc. IEEE 99, 556 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, H. W. Ren, S. Xu, Y. Chen, L. Rao, T. Ishinabe, and S. T. Wu, J. Disp. Technol. 7, 674 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

Y. P. Huang, L. Y. Liao, and C. W. Chen, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18, 642 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Shin, M. Cho, and B. Javidi, Opt. Lett. 35, 3646 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

R. Schulein, M. Daneshpanah, and B. Javidi, Opt. Lett. 34, 2012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, Proc. IEEE 97, 1067 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006

F. Okano, J. Arai, K. Mitani, and M. Okui, Proc. IEEE 94, 490 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Stern and B. Javidi, Proc. IEEE 94, 591 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Ren and S. T. Wu, Opt. Express 14, 11292 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

T. A. Clarke and J. F. Fryer, Photogramm. Rec. 16, 51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1988

L. Yang, M. McCornick, and N. Davies, Appl. Opt. 27, 4529 (1988).
[CrossRef]

N. Kanopoulos, N. Vasanthavada, and R. L. Baker, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 23, 358 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1979

S. Sato, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1679 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1908

G. Lippmann, C. R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446 (1908).

Arai, J.

F. Okano, J. Arai, K. Mitani, and M. Okui, Proc. IEEE 94, 490 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baker, R. L.

N. Kanopoulos, N. Vasanthavada, and R. L. Baker, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 23, 358 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y. C.

C. W. Chen, Y. P. Huang, Y. C. Chang, P. H. Wang, P. C. Chen, and C. H. Tsai, Proc. SPIE 8384, 83840W (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. W.

C. W. Chen, Y. P. Huang, Y. C. Chang, P. H. Wang, P. C. Chen, and C. H. Tsai, Proc. SPIE 8384, 83840W (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Huang, L. Y. Liao, and C. W. Chen, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18, 642 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Huang and C. W. Chen, “Superzone Fresnel liquid crystal lens for temporal scanning auto-stereoscopic display,” J. Disp. (to be published).

Chen, P. C.

C. W. Chen, Y. P. Huang, Y. C. Chang, P. H. Wang, P. C. Chen, and C. H. Tsai, Proc. SPIE 8384, 83840W (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Liu, H. W. Ren, S. Xu, Y. Chen, L. Rao, T. Ishinabe, and S. T. Wu, J. Disp. Technol. 7, 674 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cho, M.

M. Cho, M. Daneshpanah, I. Moon, and B. Javidi, Proc. IEEE 99, 556 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Shin, M. Cho, and B. Javidi, Opt. Lett. 35, 3646 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, T. A.

T. A. Clarke and J. F. Fryer, Photogramm. Rec. 16, 51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Daneshpanah, M.

M. Cho, M. Daneshpanah, I. Moon, and B. Javidi, Proc. IEEE 99, 556 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Schulein, M. Daneshpanah, and B. Javidi, Opt. Lett. 34, 2012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Davies, N.

Fryer, J. F.

T. A. Clarke and J. F. Fryer, Photogramm. Rec. 16, 51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. P.

C. W. Chen, Y. P. Huang, Y. C. Chang, P. H. Wang, P. C. Chen, and C. H. Tsai, Proc. SPIE 8384, 83840W (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Huang, L. Y. Liao, and C. W. Chen, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18, 642 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Huang and C. W. Chen, “Superzone Fresnel liquid crystal lens for temporal scanning auto-stereoscopic display,” J. Disp. (to be published).

Ishinabe, T.

Y. Liu, H. W. Ren, S. Xu, Y. Chen, L. Rao, T. Ishinabe, and S. T. Wu, J. Disp. Technol. 7, 674 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Javidi, B.

M. Cho, M. Daneshpanah, I. Moon, and B. Javidi, Proc. IEEE 99, 556 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Shin, M. Cho, and B. Javidi, Opt. Lett. 35, 3646 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Schulein, M. Daneshpanah, and B. Javidi, Opt. Lett. 34, 2012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, Proc. IEEE 97, 1067 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Stern and B. Javidi, Proc. IEEE 94, 591 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kanopoulos, N.

N. Kanopoulos, N. Vasanthavada, and R. L. Baker, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 23, 358 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q.

Li, Y.

Liao, L. Y.

Y. P. Huang, L. Y. Liao, and C. W. Chen, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18, 642 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lippmann, G.

G. Lippmann, C. R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446 (1908).

Liu, Y.

Y. Li, Y. Liu, Q. Li, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Opt. 51, 2568 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, H. W. Ren, S. Xu, Y. Chen, L. Rao, T. Ishinabe, and S. T. Wu, J. Disp. Technol. 7, 674 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Loktev, M. Y.

Love, G. D.

Martinez-Corral, M.

R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, Proc. IEEE 97, 1067 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Martinez-Cuenca, R.

R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, Proc. IEEE 97, 1067 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McCornick, M.

Mitani, K.

F. Okano, J. Arai, K. Mitani, and M. Okui, Proc. IEEE 94, 490 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moon, I.

M. Cho, M. Daneshpanah, I. Moon, and B. Javidi, Proc. IEEE 99, 556 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Namov, A. F.

Okano, F.

F. Okano, J. Arai, K. Mitani, and M. Okui, Proc. IEEE 94, 490 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Okui, M.

F. Okano, J. Arai, K. Mitani, and M. Okui, Proc. IEEE 94, 490 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rao, L.

Y. Liu, H. W. Ren, S. Xu, Y. Chen, L. Rao, T. Ishinabe, and S. T. Wu, J. Disp. Technol. 7, 674 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ren, H. W.

Y. Liu, H. W. Ren, S. Xu, Y. Chen, L. Rao, T. Ishinabe, and S. T. Wu, J. Disp. Technol. 7, 674 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Ren and S. T. Wu, Opt. Express 14, 11292 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Saavedra, G.

R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, Proc. IEEE 97, 1067 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sato, S.

S. Sato, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1679 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Schulein, R.

Shin, D.

Stern, A.

A. Stern and B. Javidi, Proc. IEEE 94, 591 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C. H.

C. W. Chen, Y. P. Huang, Y. C. Chang, P. H. Wang, P. C. Chen, and C. H. Tsai, Proc. SPIE 8384, 83840W (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vasanthavada, N.

N. Kanopoulos, N. Vasanthavada, and R. L. Baker, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 23, 358 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Vladimirov, F. L.

Wang, P. H.

C. W. Chen, Y. P. Huang, Y. C. Chang, P. H. Wang, P. C. Chen, and C. H. Tsai, Proc. SPIE 8384, 83840W (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

Y. Li, Y. Liu, Q. Li, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Opt. 51, 2568 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, H. W. Ren, S. Xu, Y. Chen, L. Rao, T. Ishinabe, and S. T. Wu, J. Disp. Technol. 7, 674 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Ren and S. T. Wu, Opt. Express 14, 11292 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S.

Y. Liu, H. W. Ren, S. Xu, Y. Chen, L. Rao, T. Ishinabe, and S. T. Wu, J. Disp. Technol. 7, 674 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.

Appl. Opt.

C. R. Acad. Sci.

G. Lippmann, C. R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446 (1908).

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits

N. Kanopoulos, N. Vasanthavada, and R. L. Baker, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 23, 358 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Disp. Technol.

Y. Liu, H. W. Ren, S. Xu, Y. Chen, L. Rao, T. Ishinabe, and S. T. Wu, J. Disp. Technol. 7, 674 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp.

Y. P. Huang, L. Y. Liao, and C. W. Chen, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18, 642 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

S. Sato, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1679 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Photogramm. Rec.

T. A. Clarke and J. F. Fryer, Photogramm. Rec. 16, 51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE

F. Okano, J. Arai, K. Mitani, and M. Okui, Proc. IEEE 94, 490 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Stern and B. Javidi, Proc. IEEE 94, 591 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, Proc. IEEE 97, 1067 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Cho, M. Daneshpanah, I. Moon, and B. Javidi, Proc. IEEE 99, 556 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

C. W. Chen, Y. P. Huang, Y. C. Chang, P. H. Wang, P. C. Chen, and C. H. Tsai, Proc. SPIE 8384, 83840W (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other

Y. P. Huang and C. W. Chen, “Superzone Fresnel liquid crystal lens for temporal scanning auto-stereoscopic display,” J. Disp. (to be published).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Structure of high-resistance liquid crystal (HR-LC) lens. High-resistance layer is coated on the controlled electrode layer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experiments of light intensity distributions after passing through HR-LC lens for different driving voltages, and relationship between focal length and driving voltage.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Setup of the proposed 3D sensing system: ADS using HR-LC lens.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental setup of ADS with HR-LC lens. The objects: slogan and totem are separated by 5 mm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Examples of the recorded 2D elemental images with different focal lengths of HR-LC lens. (a) The first elemental image (fLC=4cm) and (b) the twelfth elemental image (fLC=20cm).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

ADS experimental results. 3D computational reconstructions of the scene with different distances: (a) z=9mm, (b) z=13mm, and (c) z=18mm (part of the slogan and totem are selected to see more detail). The Sobel edge detector is used.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

fLC=ρ22(n(ρ)nmax)d,
n(ρ)=1z0zn(ρ,z)dz,
Mj=f1(dfj)fj(df1).
I(x,y,zr)=1Kj=0K1Ej(xMj×(zrz0),yMj×(zrz0),zr),

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