Abstract

The unambiguous determination of optical refractive indices of metamaterials is a challenging task for device applications and the study of new optical phenomena. We demonstrate here simple broadband phase measurements of metamaterials using spectrally and spatially resolved interferometry. We study the phase response of a π-shaped metamaterial known to be an analog to electromagnetically induced transparency. The measured broadband interferograms give the phase delay or advance produced by the metamaterial in a single measurement. The presented technique offers an effective way of characterizing optical metamaterials including nonlinear and gain–metamaterial systems.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2010

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, Nat. Mater. 9, 707 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-S. Huang, V. Callegari, P. Geisler, C. Brüning, J. Kern, J. C. Prangsma, X. Wu, T. Feichtner, J. Ziegler, P. Weinmann, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, P. Biagioni, U. Sennhauser, and B. Hecht, Nat. Commun. 1, 150 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Pshenay-Severin, F. Setzpfandt, C. Helgert, U. Hübner, C. Menzel, A. Chipouline, C. Rockstuhl, A. Tünnermann, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 660(2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kastel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, Nat. Mater. 8, 758 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Kanté, J.-M. Lourtioz, and A. de Lustrac, Phys. Rev. B 80, 205120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376(2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Börzsönyi, A. P. Kovács, M. Görbe, and K. Osvay, Opt. Commun. 281, 3051 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Bowlan, P. Gabolde, M. A. Coughlan, R. Trebino, and R. J. Levis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, A81 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

V. M. Shalaev, Nat. Photonics 1, 41 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, Science 312, 892 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Drachev, W. Cai, U. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, A. V. Kildishev, G. Klimeck, and V. M. Shalaev, Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 49 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Stoller, V. Jacobsen, and V. Sandoghdar, Opt. Lett. 31, 2474 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Bowlan, P. Gabolde, A. Shreenath, K. McGresham, R. Trebino, and S. Akturk, Opt. Express 14, 11892 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. A. van Dijk, M. Lippitz, and M. Orrit, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 267406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404(2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1997

D. Meshulach, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1969 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Meshulach, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2095 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1972

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1901

L. Puccianti, Nuovo Cimento 5 2, 257 (1901).
[CrossRef]

Akturk, S.

Bartal, G.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376(2008).
[CrossRef]

Biagioni, P.

J.-S. Huang, V. Callegari, P. Geisler, C. Brüning, J. Kern, J. C. Prangsma, X. Wu, T. Feichtner, J. Ziegler, P. Weinmann, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, P. Biagioni, U. Sennhauser, and B. Hecht, Nat. Commun. 1, 150 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-VCH, 1998).

Börzsönyi, A.

A. Börzsönyi, A. P. Kovács, M. Görbe, and K. Osvay, Opt. Commun. 281, 3051 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bowlan, P.

Brueck, S. R. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404(2005).
[CrossRef]

Brüning, C.

J.-S. Huang, V. Callegari, P. Geisler, C. Brüning, J. Kern, J. C. Prangsma, X. Wu, T. Feichtner, J. Ziegler, P. Weinmann, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, P. Biagioni, U. Sennhauser, and B. Hecht, Nat. Commun. 1, 150 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

V. P. Drachev, W. Cai, U. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, A. V. Kildishev, G. Klimeck, and V. M. Shalaev, Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 49 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Callegari, V.

J.-S. Huang, V. Callegari, P. Geisler, C. Brüning, J. Kern, J. C. Prangsma, X. Wu, T. Feichtner, J. Ziegler, P. Weinmann, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, P. Biagioni, U. Sennhauser, and B. Hecht, Nat. Commun. 1, 150 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U.

V. P. Drachev, W. Cai, U. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, A. V. Kildishev, G. Klimeck, and V. M. Shalaev, Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 49 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chipouline, A.

Chong, C. T.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, Nat. Mater. 9, 707 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Coughlan, M. A.

de Lustrac, A.

B. Kanté, J.-M. Lourtioz, and A. de Lustrac, Phys. Rev. B 80, 205120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dolling, G.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, Science 312, 892 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Drachev, V. P.

V. P. Drachev, W. Cai, U. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, A. V. Kildishev, G. Klimeck, and V. M. Shalaev, Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 49 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Enkrich, C.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, Science 312, 892 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fan, W.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404(2005).
[CrossRef]

Feichtner, T.

J.-S. Huang, V. Callegari, P. Geisler, C. Brüning, J. Kern, J. C. Prangsma, X. Wu, T. Feichtner, J. Ziegler, P. Weinmann, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, P. Biagioni, U. Sennhauser, and B. Hecht, Nat. Commun. 1, 150 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fleischhauer, M.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kastel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, Nat. Mater. 8, 758 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Forchel, A.

J.-S. Huang, V. Callegari, P. Geisler, C. Brüning, J. Kern, J. C. Prangsma, X. Wu, T. Feichtner, J. Ziegler, P. Weinmann, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, P. Biagioni, U. Sennhauser, and B. Hecht, Nat. Commun. 1, 150 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gabolde, P.

Geisler, P.

J.-S. Huang, V. Callegari, P. Geisler, C. Brüning, J. Kern, J. C. Prangsma, X. Wu, T. Feichtner, J. Ziegler, P. Weinmann, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, P. Biagioni, U. Sennhauser, and B. Hecht, Nat. Commun. 1, 150 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Genov, D. A.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376(2008).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, Nat. Mater. 9, 707 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kastel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, Nat. Mater. 8, 758 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Görbe, M.

A. Börzsönyi, A. P. Kovács, M. Görbe, and K. Osvay, Opt. Commun. 281, 3051 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Halas, N. J.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, Nat. Mater. 9, 707 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

J.-S. Huang, V. Callegari, P. Geisler, C. Brüning, J. Kern, J. C. Prangsma, X. Wu, T. Feichtner, J. Ziegler, P. Weinmann, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, P. Biagioni, U. Sennhauser, and B. Hecht, Nat. Commun. 1, 150 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Helgert, C.

Huang, J.-S.

J.-S. Huang, V. Callegari, P. Geisler, C. Brüning, J. Kern, J. C. Prangsma, X. Wu, T. Feichtner, J. Ziegler, P. Weinmann, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, P. Biagioni, U. Sennhauser, and B. Hecht, Nat. Commun. 1, 150 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hübner, U.

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-VCH, 1998).

Imamoglu, A.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsen, V.

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kamp, M.

J.-S. Huang, V. Callegari, P. Geisler, C. Brüning, J. Kern, J. C. Prangsma, X. Wu, T. Feichtner, J. Ziegler, P. Weinmann, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, P. Biagioni, U. Sennhauser, and B. Hecht, Nat. Commun. 1, 150 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kanté, B.

B. Kanté, J.-M. Lourtioz, and A. de Lustrac, Phys. Rev. B 80, 205120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kastel, J.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kastel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, Nat. Mater. 8, 758 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kern, J.

J.-S. Huang, V. Callegari, P. Geisler, C. Brüning, J. Kern, J. C. Prangsma, X. Wu, T. Feichtner, J. Ziegler, P. Weinmann, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, P. Biagioni, U. Sennhauser, and B. Hecht, Nat. Commun. 1, 150 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kildishev, A. V.

V. P. Drachev, W. Cai, U. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, A. V. Kildishev, G. Klimeck, and V. M. Shalaev, Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 49 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Klimeck, G.

V. P. Drachev, W. Cai, U. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, A. V. Kildishev, G. Klimeck, and V. M. Shalaev, Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 49 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kovács, A. P.

A. Börzsönyi, A. P. Kovács, M. Görbe, and K. Osvay, Opt. Commun. 281, 3051 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Langguth, L.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kastel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, Nat. Mater. 8, 758 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

Levis, R. J.

Linden, S.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, Science 312, 892 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lippitz, M.

M. A. van Dijk, M. Lippitz, and M. Orrit, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 267406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, N.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kastel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, Nat. Mater. 8, 758 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lourtioz, J.-M.

B. Kanté, J.-M. Lourtioz, and A. de Lustrac, Phys. Rev. B 80, 205120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luk’yanchuk, B.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, Nat. Mater. 9, 707 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maier, S. A.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, Nat. Mater. 9, 707 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Malloy, K. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404(2005).
[CrossRef]

Marangos, J. P.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McGresham, K.

Menzel, C.

Meshulach, D.

D. Meshulach, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1969 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Meshulach, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2095 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nordlander, P.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, Nat. Mater. 9, 707 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Orrit, M.

M. A. van Dijk, M. Lippitz, and M. Orrit, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 267406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404(2005).
[CrossRef]

Osvay, K.

A. Börzsönyi, A. P. Kovács, M. Görbe, and K. Osvay, Opt. Commun. 281, 3051 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Panoiu, N. C.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404(2005).
[CrossRef]

Pertsch, T.

Pfau, T.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kastel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, Nat. Mater. 8, 758 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Prangsma, J. C.

J.-S. Huang, V. Callegari, P. Geisler, C. Brüning, J. Kern, J. C. Prangsma, X. Wu, T. Feichtner, J. Ziegler, P. Weinmann, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, P. Biagioni, U. Sennhauser, and B. Hecht, Nat. Commun. 1, 150 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pshenay-Severin, E.

Puccianti, L.

L. Puccianti, Nuovo Cimento 5 2, 257 (1901).
[CrossRef]

Rockstuhl, C.

Sandoghdar, V.

Sarychev, A. K.

V. P. Drachev, W. Cai, U. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, A. V. Kildishev, G. Klimeck, and V. M. Shalaev, Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 49 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sennhauser, U.

J.-S. Huang, V. Callegari, P. Geisler, C. Brüning, J. Kern, J. C. Prangsma, X. Wu, T. Feichtner, J. Ziegler, P. Weinmann, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, P. Biagioni, U. Sennhauser, and B. Hecht, Nat. Commun. 1, 150 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Setzpfandt, F.

Shalaev, V. M.

V. M. Shalaev, Nat. Photonics 1, 41 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Drachev, W. Cai, U. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, A. V. Kildishev, G. Klimeck, and V. M. Shalaev, Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 49 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shreenath, A.

Silberberg, Y.

D. Meshulach, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1969 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Meshulach, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2095 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, Science 312, 892 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stoller, P.

Trebino, R.

Tünnermann, A.

Ulin-Avila, E.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376(2008).
[CrossRef]

Valentine, J.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376(2008).
[CrossRef]

van Dijk, M. A.

M. A. van Dijk, M. Lippitz, and M. Orrit, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 267406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, Science 312, 892 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weinmann, P.

J.-S. Huang, V. Callegari, P. Geisler, C. Brüning, J. Kern, J. C. Prangsma, X. Wu, T. Feichtner, J. Ziegler, P. Weinmann, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, P. Biagioni, U. Sennhauser, and B. Hecht, Nat. Commun. 1, 150 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, T.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kastel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, Nat. Mater. 8, 758 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X.

J.-S. Huang, V. Callegari, P. Geisler, C. Brüning, J. Kern, J. C. Prangsma, X. Wu, T. Feichtner, J. Ziegler, P. Weinmann, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, P. Biagioni, U. Sennhauser, and B. Hecht, Nat. Commun. 1, 150 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yelin, D.

D. Meshulach, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2095 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Meshulach, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1969 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, H.-K.

V. P. Drachev, W. Cai, U. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, A. V. Kildishev, G. Klimeck, and V. M. Shalaev, Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 49 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zentgraf, T.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376(2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(1) Top and (b) side views of the experimental setup for broadband interferometry. BS, beamsplitter cube; M1, M2: 25 mm focal length 90° off-axis parabolas; M4 and M5: folding mirrors for the reference path, to produce the angle ( α ) between the sample and reference paths.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Interferogram obtained for (a) the 80 nm gap sample and for (b) the substrate adjacent to the sample. A 0.5 mm quartz substrate is used for the sample and in the reference path. Cross sections are shown at a point where (c) the phase is 0.0 rad (1.39 μm) and (d) 0.5 rad (1.49 μm). The difference in the amplitude is due to the absorption of the sample, the power spectrum of the light source, and variations in the detector sensitivity.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Scanning electron microscope images of the nanostructure arrays with a gap of (a) 10 nm and (b) 80 nm. The dimensions of the vertical bars are 200 × 60 nm , and the horizontal bar 160 × 50 nm with a separation of 90 nm. The pitch is 600 nm with an array size of 50 × 50 μm . (c) Measured and (d) simulated phase. (e) The corresponding measured and (f) simulated transmission. The average standard deviation for the phase is 0.02 rad ( λ / 300 ).

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