Abstract

To fabricate athermal silicon nitride waveguides, the dimensions of both the core and cladding, refractive index, and thermo-optic coefficients must be controlled precisely. We present a simple and effective method for the postfabrication trimming of silicon nitride ring resonators that overcomes the highly demanding fabrication. In order to manipulate the polymer’s refractive index and thermo-optic coefficient, we bleached the Disperse Red 1-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) (DR1/PMMA) top cladding using UV irradiation. After a suitable bleaching time, the temperature-dependent wavelength shift of the ring resonator was reduced from 9.8 to 0.018pm/°C, which is the lowest shift that we are aware of for an athermal waveguide realized by overlaying a polymer cladding to date.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2010 (4)

2009 (3)

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

K. Worhoff, L. T. H. Hilderink, A. Driessen, and P. V. Lambeck, J. Electrochem. Soc. 149, F85 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

Y. Kokubun, N. Funato, and M. Takizawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1297 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Amberg, P.

Baets, R.

Barrios, C. A.

Block, B. A.

Bogaerts, W.

Cao, Z.

K. Chen, X. Deng, X. Li, Z. Cao, Q. Shen, and H. Li, Opt. Laser Eng. 47, 708 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Carlborg, C. F.

Chang, P.

Chen, K.

K. Chen, X. Deng, X. Li, Z. Cao, Q. Shen, and H. Li, Opt. Laser Eng. 47, 708 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

Dalton, L. R.

Davids, P. S.

Deng, X.

K. Chen, X. Deng, X. Li, Z. Cao, Q. Shen, and H. Li, Opt. Laser Eng. 47, 708 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dortu, F.

Driessen, A.

K. Worhoff, L. T. H. Hilderink, A. Driessen, and P. V. Lambeck, J. Electrochem. Soc. 149, F85 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

Fathpour, S.

Foster, M. A.

J. S. Levy, M. A. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 19, 11415 (2011).
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J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photonics 4, 37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Funato, N.

Y. Kokubun, N. Funato, and M. Takizawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1297 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

J. S. Levy, M. A. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 19, 11415 (2011).
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J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photonics 4, 37 (2010).
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Gondarenko, A.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photonics 4, 37 (2010).
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Guha, B.

Gylfason, K. B.

Han, X.

Hilderink, L. T. H.

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[CrossRef]

Ho, R.

Hu, J.

Huang, S.

Huang, Y.

Izuhara, T.

Jalali, B.

Jen, A. K. Y.

Jian, X.

Kazmierczak, A.

Kmerling, L. C.

Kokubun, Y.

Y. Kokubun, N. Funato, and M. Takizawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1297 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Lambeck, P. V.

K. Worhoff, L. T. H. Hilderink, A. Driessen, and P. V. Lambeck, J. Electrochem. Soc. 149, F85 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Levy, J. S.

J. S. Levy, M. A. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 19, 11415 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photonics 4, 37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lexau, J.

Li, G.

Li, H.

K. Chen, X. Deng, X. Li, Z. Cao, Q. Shen, and H. Li, Opt. Laser Eng. 47, 708 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

K. Chen, X. Deng, X. Li, Z. Cao, Q. Shen, and H. Li, Opt. Laser Eng. 47, 708 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

B. Guha, K. Preston, and M. Lipson, Opt. Lett. 37, 2253 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Levy, M. A. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 19, 11415 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photonics 4, 37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

Luo, Y.

Mekis, A.

Michel, J.

Morthier, G.

Paloczai, G. T.

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Pinguet, T.

Polishak, B. M.

Poon, J. K. S.

Preston, K.

Raghunathan, V.

Raj, K.

Reshotko, M. R.

Shen, Q.

K. Chen, X. Deng, X. Li, Z. Cao, Q. Shen, and H. Li, Opt. Laser Eng. 47, 708 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shi, J.

Sohlström, H.

Stemme, G.

Takizawa, M.

Y. Kokubun, N. Funato, and M. Takizawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1297 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Teng, J.

Thacker, H.

Turner-Foster, A. C.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photonics 4, 37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Van Campenhout, J.

van der Wijngaart, W.

Vivien, L.

Vlasov, Yu. A.

Worhoff, K.

K. Worhoff, L. T. H. Hilderink, A. Driessen, and P. V. Lambeck, J. Electrochem. Soc. 149, F85 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

Ye, W. N.

Younkin, T. R.

Zhang, C.

Zhang, H.

Zhao, M.

Zheng, X.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. Kokubun, N. Funato, and M. Takizawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1297 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

K. Worhoff, L. T. H. Hilderink, A. Driessen, and P. V. Lambeck, J. Electrochem. Soc. 149, F85 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photonics 4, 37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Laser Eng. (1)

K. Chen, X. Deng, X. Li, Z. Cao, Q. Shen, and H. Li, Opt. Laser Eng. 47, 708 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (1)

RSoft Design Group, http://www.rsoftdesign.com .

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Designed structure and (b) top-view and (c) cross-sectional SEM images of the fabricated ring resonator.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured changes in refractive index and TO coefficient of the DR1/PMMA film under UV light exposure at different times.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transmission spectra (a) before and (b) after bleaching for 120 min, and (c) linear fit of TDWS for the ring resonator.

Equations (1)

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dλmdT=(neff·asub+dneffdT)λmng,

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