Abstract

We propose a simple optical fiber tip for field-enhanced second harmonic generation (SHG). The tip shows nonlinear phenomena of SHG over a wide range of sources, at least from 630 to 830 nm. The optical field corresponding to the second harmonic appears as a nondiffracting bottle beam with voids due to the surface curvature of the tip. The field-enhanced second harmonic can also induce surface plasmons, converting the tip to a plasmonic probe with reduced background signal. The tip can be useful in nanophotonics characterization. As an example, we demonstrate the tip’s response as a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy probe.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2012 (2)

2011 (3)

Y. Yuan and L. Ding, Opt. Express 19, 21515 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Lipomi, R. V. Martinez, M. A. Kats, S. H. Kang, P. Kim, J. Aizenberg, F. Capasso, and G. M. Whitesides, Nano Lett. 11, 632 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Mondal, A. Mitra, N. Singh, F. Shi, and P. Kapur, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1382 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

H. Husu, B. K. Canfield, J. Laukkanen, B. Bai, M. Kuittinen, J. Turunen, and M. Kauranen, Metamaterials 2, 155 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, Nature 453, 757 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

L. Zhang, Y. Bai, Z. Shang, Y. Zhang, and Y. Mo, J. Raman Spectrosc. 38, 1106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

N. Anderson, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, J. Opt. A 8, S227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Song, W. Li, Y. Cheng, H. Jia, G. Zhao, Y. Zhou, B. Yang, W. Xu, W. Tian, and B. Zhao, J. Raman Spectrosc. 37, 755 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

B. Pettinger, B. Ren, G. Picardi, R. Schuster, and G. Ertl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 096101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Hartschuh, M. R. Beversluis, A. Bouheilier, and L. Novotny, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 362, 807 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

A. Bouheilier, M. R. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Green and F. M. Liu, J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 13015 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. Takahashi and A. V. Zayats, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3479 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1988 (1)

Aizenberg, J.

D. J. Lipomi, R. V. Martinez, M. A. Kats, S. H. Kang, P. Kim, J. Aizenberg, F. Capasso, and G. M. Whitesides, Nano Lett. 11, 632 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, N.

N. Anderson, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, J. Opt. A 8, S227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Andrejco, M. J.

Bai, B.

H. Husu, B. K. Canfield, J. Laukkanen, B. Bai, M. Kuittinen, J. Turunen, and M. Kauranen, Metamaterials 2, 155 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bai, Y.

L. Zhang, Y. Bai, Z. Shang, Y. Zhang, and Y. Mo, J. Raman Spectrosc. 38, 1106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beversluis, M. R.

A. Hartschuh, M. R. Beversluis, A. Bouheilier, and L. Novotny, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 362, 807 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Bouheilier, M. R. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bouheilier, A.

A. Hartschuh, M. R. Beversluis, A. Bouheilier, and L. Novotny, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 362, 807 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Bouheilier, M. R. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bouhelier, A.

N. Anderson, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, J. Opt. A 8, S227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Canfield, B. K.

H. Husu, B. K. Canfield, J. Laukkanen, B. Bai, M. Kuittinen, J. Turunen, and M. Kauranen, Metamaterials 2, 155 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

D. J. Lipomi, R. V. Martinez, M. A. Kats, S. H. Kang, P. Kim, J. Aizenberg, F. Capasso, and G. M. Whitesides, Nano Lett. 11, 632 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

W. Song, W. Li, Y. Cheng, H. Jia, G. Zhao, Y. Zhou, B. Yang, W. Xu, W. Tian, and B. Zhao, J. Raman Spectrosc. 37, 755 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ding, L.

Ertl, G.

B. Pettinger, B. Ren, G. Picardi, R. Schuster, and G. Ertl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 096101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Green, M.

M. Green and F. M. Liu, J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 13015 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hartschuh, A.

A. Hartschuh, M. R. Beversluis, A. Bouheilier, and L. Novotny, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 362, 807 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Bouheilier, M. R. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Husu, H.

H. Husu, B. K. Canfield, J. Laukkanen, B. Bai, M. Kuittinen, J. Turunen, and M. Kauranen, Metamaterials 2, 155 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Inouye, Y.

S. Kawata, Y. Inouye, and P. Verma, Nat. Photonics 3, 388 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jia, H.

W. Song, W. Li, Y. Cheng, H. Jia, G. Zhao, Y. Zhou, B. Yang, W. Xu, W. Tian, and B. Zhao, J. Raman Spectrosc. 37, 755 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jin, J.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, Nature 453, 757 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kang, S. H.

D. J. Lipomi, R. V. Martinez, M. A. Kats, S. H. Kang, P. Kim, J. Aizenberg, F. Capasso, and G. M. Whitesides, Nano Lett. 11, 632 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kapur, P.

Kats, M. A.

D. J. Lipomi, R. V. Martinez, M. A. Kats, S. H. Kang, P. Kim, J. Aizenberg, F. Capasso, and G. M. Whitesides, Nano Lett. 11, 632 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kauranen, M.

H. Husu, B. K. Canfield, J. Laukkanen, B. Bai, M. Kuittinen, J. Turunen, and M. Kauranen, Metamaterials 2, 155 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

S. Kawata, Y. Inouye, and P. Verma, Nat. Photonics 3, 388 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kawazoe, T.

Kim, P.

D. J. Lipomi, R. V. Martinez, M. A. Kats, S. H. Kang, P. Kim, J. Aizenberg, F. Capasso, and G. M. Whitesides, Nano Lett. 11, 632 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, Nature 453, 757 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-W.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, Nature 453, 757 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, Nature 453, 757 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.-J.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, Nature 453, 757 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kuittinen, M.

H. Husu, B. K. Canfield, J. Laukkanen, B. Bai, M. Kuittinen, J. Turunen, and M. Kauranen, Metamaterials 2, 155 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Laukkanen, J.

H. Husu, B. K. Canfield, J. Laukkanen, B. Bai, M. Kuittinen, J. Turunen, and M. Kauranen, Metamaterials 2, 155 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

W. Song, W. Li, Y. Cheng, H. Jia, G. Zhao, Y. Zhou, B. Yang, W. Xu, W. Tian, and B. Zhao, J. Raman Spectrosc. 37, 755 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lipomi, D. J.

D. J. Lipomi, R. V. Martinez, M. A. Kats, S. H. Kang, P. Kim, J. Aizenberg, F. Capasso, and G. M. Whitesides, Nano Lett. 11, 632 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F. M.

M. Green and F. M. Liu, J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 13015 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lovera, A.

Martin, O. J. F.

Martinez, R. V.

D. J. Lipomi, R. V. Martinez, M. A. Kats, S. H. Kang, P. Kim, J. Aizenberg, F. Capasso, and G. M. Whitesides, Nano Lett. 11, 632 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mitra, A.

S. K. Mondal, A. Mitra, N. Singh, F. Shi, and P. Kapur, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1382 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Mondal, A. Mitra, N. Singh, S. N. Sarkar, and P. Kapur, Opt. Express 17, 19470 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mo, Y.

L. Zhang, Y. Bai, Z. Shang, Y. Zhang, and Y. Mo, J. Raman Spectrosc. 38, 1106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mondal, S. K.

Novotny, L.

N. Anderson, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, J. Opt. A 8, S227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Hartschuh, M. R. Beversluis, A. Bouheilier, and L. Novotny, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 362, 807 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Bouheilier, M. R. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsu, M.

Park, I.-Y.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, Nature 453, 757 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pettinger, B.

B. Pettinger, B. Ren, G. Picardi, R. Schuster, and G. Ertl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 096101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Picardi, G.

B. Pettinger, B. Ren, G. Picardi, R. Schuster, and G. Ertl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 096101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ren, B.

B. Pettinger, B. Ren, G. Picardi, R. Schuster, and G. Ertl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 096101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Richard, S.

Rivier, S.

Saifi, M. A.

Sarkar, S. N.

Sarkar Pal, S.

Schuster, R.

B. Pettinger, B. Ren, G. Picardi, R. Schuster, and G. Ertl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 096101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shang, Z.

L. Zhang, Y. Bai, Z. Shang, Y. Zhang, and Y. Mo, J. Raman Spectrosc. 38, 1106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shi, F.

S. K. Mondal, A. Mitra, N. Singh, F. Shi, and P. Kapur, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1382 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, T.

Singh, N.

S. K. Mondal, A. Mitra, N. Singh, F. Shi, and P. Kapur, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1382 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Mondal, A. Mitra, N. Singh, S. N. Sarkar, and P. Kapur, Opt. Express 17, 19470 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Song, W.

W. Song, W. Li, Y. Cheng, H. Jia, G. Zhao, Y. Zhou, B. Yang, W. Xu, W. Tian, and B. Zhao, J. Raman Spectrosc. 37, 755 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, S.

S. Takahashi and A. V. Zayats, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3479 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thyagarajan, K.

Tian, W.

W. Song, W. Li, Y. Cheng, H. Jia, G. Zhao, Y. Zhou, B. Yang, W. Xu, W. Tian, and B. Zhao, J. Raman Spectrosc. 37, 755 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Turunen, J.

H. Husu, B. K. Canfield, J. Laukkanen, B. Bai, M. Kuittinen, J. Turunen, and M. Kauranen, Metamaterials 2, 155 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Verma, P.

S. Kawata, Y. Inouye, and P. Verma, Nat. Photonics 3, 388 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Whitesides, G. M.

D. J. Lipomi, R. V. Martinez, M. A. Kats, S. H. Kang, P. Kim, J. Aizenberg, F. Capasso, and G. M. Whitesides, Nano Lett. 11, 632 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, W.

W. Song, W. Li, Y. Cheng, H. Jia, G. Zhao, Y. Zhou, B. Yang, W. Xu, W. Tian, and B. Zhao, J. Raman Spectrosc. 37, 755 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, B.

W. Song, W. Li, Y. Cheng, H. Jia, G. Zhao, Y. Zhou, B. Yang, W. Xu, W. Tian, and B. Zhao, J. Raman Spectrosc. 37, 755 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Y.

Zayats, A. V.

S. Takahashi and A. V. Zayats, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3479 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, Y. Bai, Z. Shang, Y. Zhang, and Y. Mo, J. Raman Spectrosc. 38, 1106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

L. Zhang, Y. Bai, Z. Shang, Y. Zhang, and Y. Mo, J. Raman Spectrosc. 38, 1106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, B.

W. Song, W. Li, Y. Cheng, H. Jia, G. Zhao, Y. Zhou, B. Yang, W. Xu, W. Tian, and B. Zhao, J. Raman Spectrosc. 37, 755 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, G.

W. Song, W. Li, Y. Cheng, H. Jia, G. Zhao, Y. Zhou, B. Yang, W. Xu, W. Tian, and B. Zhao, J. Raman Spectrosc. 37, 755 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

W. Song, W. Li, Y. Cheng, H. Jia, G. Zhao, Y. Zhou, B. Yang, W. Xu, W. Tian, and B. Zhao, J. Raman Spectrosc. 37, 755 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Takahashi and A. V. Zayats, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3479 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. K. Mondal, A. Mitra, N. Singh, F. Shi, and P. Kapur, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1382 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

N. Anderson, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, J. Opt. A 8, S227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

M. Green and F. M. Liu, J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 13015 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (2)

L. Zhang, Y. Bai, Z. Shang, Y. Zhang, and Y. Mo, J. Raman Spectrosc. 38, 1106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Song, W. Li, Y. Cheng, H. Jia, G. Zhao, Y. Zhou, B. Yang, W. Xu, W. Tian, and B. Zhao, J. Raman Spectrosc. 37, 755 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Metamaterials (1)

H. Husu, B. K. Canfield, J. Laukkanen, B. Bai, M. Kuittinen, J. Turunen, and M. Kauranen, Metamaterials 2, 155 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

D. J. Lipomi, R. V. Martinez, M. A. Kats, S. H. Kang, P. Kim, J. Aizenberg, F. Capasso, and G. M. Whitesides, Nano Lett. 11, 632 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

S. Kawata, Y. Inouye, and P. Verma, Nat. Photonics 3, 388 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, Nature 453, 757 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A (1)

A. Hartschuh, M. R. Beversluis, A. Bouheilier, and L. Novotny, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 362, 807 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

B. Pettinger, B. Ren, G. Picardi, R. Schuster, and G. Ertl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 096101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Bouheilier, M. R. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SEM image of (a) the bare tip, scale bar 2 μm and (b) the tip after coating Ag nanoparticles from a 0.01mg/ml aqueous solution by optical tweezing, scale bar 200 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optical image of (a) the bare tip (inset: flat end fiber) after launching near IR light (830 nm). (b) Spectra showing tip-induced SHG of 830 and 633 nm. (c)–(d) 2D representation of optical field (bottle beam) corresponding to the SHG.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Ag nanoparticle-coated tip with surface plasmon (SP, indicated by arrow) excited by the SHG. (b) Intensity profile along a line passing through the center of the enhanced spot for Ag nanoparticle-coated tip (curve I) and bare tip (curve II).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Raman spectra of 4Mpy molecules as obtained from the tip for different concentrations (a) 20 μM, (b) 2 μM, 0.2 μM, and also from direct sampling (RS).

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