Abstract

In this Letter, we describe the fabrication of an array of bimaterial detectors for infrared (IR) imaging that utilize SiO2 as a structural material. All the substrate material underneath the active area of each detector element was removed. Each detector element incorporates an optical resonant cavity layer in the IR-absorbing region of the sensing element. The simplified microfabrication process requires only four photolithographic steps with no wet etching or sacrificial layers. The thermomechanical deflection sensitivity was 7.9×103rad/K, which corresponds to a noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) of 2.9 mK. In the present work, the array was used to capture IR images while operating at room temperature and atmospheric pressure without the need for vacuum packaging. The average measured NETD of our IR detector system was approximately 200 mK, but some sensing elements exhibited an NETD of 50 mK.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. F. Dong, Q. Zhang, D. Chen, L. Pan, Z. Guo, W. Wang, Z. Duan, and X. Wu, Sens. Actuat. A 133, 236 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Grbovic, N. V. Lavrik, P. G. Datskos, D. Forrai, E. Nelson, J. Devitt, and B. McIntyre, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 073118 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Z. Guo, F. D. Q. Zhang, D. Chen, Z. Xiong, Z. Miao, C. Li, B. Jiao, and X. Wu, Sens. Actuat. A 137, 13 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Ishizuya, J. Suzuki, K. Akagawa, and T. Kazama, in The Fifteenth IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2002), p. 578.
  5. J. Salerno, Proc. SPIE 6542, 65421D (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Shi, B. Jiao, D. Chen, C. Li, D. Ding, Y. Ou, T. Ye, Z. Duan, X. Wu, and Q. Zhang, Sens. Actuat. A 133, 64 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Zhao, R. H. M. Mao, A. Majumdar, J. Varesi, P. Norton, and J. Kitching, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 11, 136 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. R. Hunter, G. Maurer, L. Jiang, and G. Simelgor, Proc. SPIE 6206, 62061J (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Grbovic, N. V. Lavrik, S. Rajic, and P. G. Datskos, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 054508 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. G. Datskos, N. V. Lavrik, and S. Rajic, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 1134 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. Kroeger and C. Swenson, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 853 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Goodson, M. Flik, L. Su, and D. A. Antoniadis, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 14, 490 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Lecaruyer, E. Maillart, M. Canva, and J. Rolland, Appl. Opt. 45, 8419 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Grbovic, “Imaging by detection of infrared photons using arrays of uncooled micromechanical detectors,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Tennessee, 2008).

2008 (1)

D. Grbovic, N. V. Lavrik, S. Rajic, and P. G. Datskos, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 054508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

F. Dong, Q. Zhang, D. Chen, L. Pan, Z. Guo, W. Wang, Z. Duan, and X. Wu, Sens. Actuat. A 133, 236 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Guo, F. D. Q. Zhang, D. Chen, Z. Xiong, Z. Miao, C. Li, B. Jiao, and X. Wu, Sens. Actuat. A 137, 13 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Salerno, Proc. SPIE 6542, 65421D (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Shi, B. Jiao, D. Chen, C. Li, D. Ding, Y. Ou, T. Ye, Z. Duan, X. Wu, and Q. Zhang, Sens. Actuat. A 133, 64 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

D. Grbovic, N. V. Lavrik, P. G. Datskos, D. Forrai, E. Nelson, J. Devitt, and B. McIntyre, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 073118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Hunter, G. Maurer, L. Jiang, and G. Simelgor, Proc. SPIE 6206, 62061J (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Lecaruyer, E. Maillart, M. Canva, and J. Rolland, Appl. Opt. 45, 8419 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

P. G. Datskos, N. V. Lavrik, and S. Rajic, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 1134 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

Y. Zhao, R. H. M. Mao, A. Majumdar, J. Varesi, P. Norton, and J. Kitching, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 11, 136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

K. Goodson, M. Flik, L. Su, and D. A. Antoniadis, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 14, 490 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

F. Kroeger and C. Swenson, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 853 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Akagawa, K.

T. Ishizuya, J. Suzuki, K. Akagawa, and T. Kazama, in The Fifteenth IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2002), p. 578.

Antoniadis, D. A.

K. Goodson, M. Flik, L. Su, and D. A. Antoniadis, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 14, 490 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Canva, M.

Chen, D.

S. Shi, B. Jiao, D. Chen, C. Li, D. Ding, Y. Ou, T. Ye, Z. Duan, X. Wu, and Q. Zhang, Sens. Actuat. A 133, 64 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Guo, F. D. Q. Zhang, D. Chen, Z. Xiong, Z. Miao, C. Li, B. Jiao, and X. Wu, Sens. Actuat. A 137, 13 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Dong, Q. Zhang, D. Chen, L. Pan, Z. Guo, W. Wang, Z. Duan, and X. Wu, Sens. Actuat. A 133, 236 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Datskos, P. G.

D. Grbovic, N. V. Lavrik, S. Rajic, and P. G. Datskos, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 054508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Grbovic, N. V. Lavrik, P. G. Datskos, D. Forrai, E. Nelson, J. Devitt, and B. McIntyre, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 073118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Datskos, N. V. Lavrik, and S. Rajic, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 1134 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Devitt, J.

D. Grbovic, N. V. Lavrik, P. G. Datskos, D. Forrai, E. Nelson, J. Devitt, and B. McIntyre, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 073118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ding, D.

S. Shi, B. Jiao, D. Chen, C. Li, D. Ding, Y. Ou, T. Ye, Z. Duan, X. Wu, and Q. Zhang, Sens. Actuat. A 133, 64 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dong, F.

F. Dong, Q. Zhang, D. Chen, L. Pan, Z. Guo, W. Wang, Z. Duan, and X. Wu, Sens. Actuat. A 133, 236 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Duan, Z.

F. Dong, Q. Zhang, D. Chen, L. Pan, Z. Guo, W. Wang, Z. Duan, and X. Wu, Sens. Actuat. A 133, 236 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Shi, B. Jiao, D. Chen, C. Li, D. Ding, Y. Ou, T. Ye, Z. Duan, X. Wu, and Q. Zhang, Sens. Actuat. A 133, 64 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Flik, M.

K. Goodson, M. Flik, L. Su, and D. A. Antoniadis, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 14, 490 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Forrai, D.

D. Grbovic, N. V. Lavrik, P. G. Datskos, D. Forrai, E. Nelson, J. Devitt, and B. McIntyre, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 073118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Goodson, K.

K. Goodson, M. Flik, L. Su, and D. A. Antoniadis, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 14, 490 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Grbovic, D.

D. Grbovic, N. V. Lavrik, S. Rajic, and P. G. Datskos, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 054508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Grbovic, N. V. Lavrik, P. G. Datskos, D. Forrai, E. Nelson, J. Devitt, and B. McIntyre, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 073118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Grbovic, “Imaging by detection of infrared photons using arrays of uncooled micromechanical detectors,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Tennessee, 2008).

Guo, Z.

Z. Guo, F. D. Q. Zhang, D. Chen, Z. Xiong, Z. Miao, C. Li, B. Jiao, and X. Wu, Sens. Actuat. A 137, 13 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Dong, Q. Zhang, D. Chen, L. Pan, Z. Guo, W. Wang, Z. Duan, and X. Wu, Sens. Actuat. A 133, 236 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, S. R.

S. R. Hunter, G. Maurer, L. Jiang, and G. Simelgor, Proc. SPIE 6206, 62061J (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ishizuya, T.

T. Ishizuya, J. Suzuki, K. Akagawa, and T. Kazama, in The Fifteenth IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2002), p. 578.

Jiang, L.

S. R. Hunter, G. Maurer, L. Jiang, and G. Simelgor, Proc. SPIE 6206, 62061J (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jiao, B.

S. Shi, B. Jiao, D. Chen, C. Li, D. Ding, Y. Ou, T. Ye, Z. Duan, X. Wu, and Q. Zhang, Sens. Actuat. A 133, 64 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Guo, F. D. Q. Zhang, D. Chen, Z. Xiong, Z. Miao, C. Li, B. Jiao, and X. Wu, Sens. Actuat. A 137, 13 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kazama, T.

T. Ishizuya, J. Suzuki, K. Akagawa, and T. Kazama, in The Fifteenth IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2002), p. 578.

Kitching, J.

Y. Zhao, R. H. M. Mao, A. Majumdar, J. Varesi, P. Norton, and J. Kitching, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 11, 136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kroeger, F.

F. Kroeger and C. Swenson, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 853 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Lavrik, N. V.

D. Grbovic, N. V. Lavrik, S. Rajic, and P. G. Datskos, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 054508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Grbovic, N. V. Lavrik, P. G. Datskos, D. Forrai, E. Nelson, J. Devitt, and B. McIntyre, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 073118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Datskos, N. V. Lavrik, and S. Rajic, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 1134 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lecaruyer, P.

Li, C.

S. Shi, B. Jiao, D. Chen, C. Li, D. Ding, Y. Ou, T. Ye, Z. Duan, X. Wu, and Q. Zhang, Sens. Actuat. A 133, 64 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Guo, F. D. Q. Zhang, D. Chen, Z. Xiong, Z. Miao, C. Li, B. Jiao, and X. Wu, Sens. Actuat. A 137, 13 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maillart, E.

Majumdar, A.

Y. Zhao, R. H. M. Mao, A. Majumdar, J. Varesi, P. Norton, and J. Kitching, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 11, 136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mao, R. H. M.

Y. Zhao, R. H. M. Mao, A. Majumdar, J. Varesi, P. Norton, and J. Kitching, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 11, 136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Maurer, G.

S. R. Hunter, G. Maurer, L. Jiang, and G. Simelgor, Proc. SPIE 6206, 62061J (2006).
[CrossRef]

McIntyre, B.

D. Grbovic, N. V. Lavrik, P. G. Datskos, D. Forrai, E. Nelson, J. Devitt, and B. McIntyre, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 073118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miao, Z.

Z. Guo, F. D. Q. Zhang, D. Chen, Z. Xiong, Z. Miao, C. Li, B. Jiao, and X. Wu, Sens. Actuat. A 137, 13 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, E.

D. Grbovic, N. V. Lavrik, P. G. Datskos, D. Forrai, E. Nelson, J. Devitt, and B. McIntyre, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 073118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Norton, P.

Y. Zhao, R. H. M. Mao, A. Majumdar, J. Varesi, P. Norton, and J. Kitching, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 11, 136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ou, Y.

S. Shi, B. Jiao, D. Chen, C. Li, D. Ding, Y. Ou, T. Ye, Z. Duan, X. Wu, and Q. Zhang, Sens. Actuat. A 133, 64 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pan, L.

F. Dong, Q. Zhang, D. Chen, L. Pan, Z. Guo, W. Wang, Z. Duan, and X. Wu, Sens. Actuat. A 133, 236 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rajic, S.

D. Grbovic, N. V. Lavrik, S. Rajic, and P. G. Datskos, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 054508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Datskos, N. V. Lavrik, and S. Rajic, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 1134 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rolland, J.

Salerno, J.

J. Salerno, Proc. SPIE 6542, 65421D (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shi, S.

S. Shi, B. Jiao, D. Chen, C. Li, D. Ding, Y. Ou, T. Ye, Z. Duan, X. Wu, and Q. Zhang, Sens. Actuat. A 133, 64 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Simelgor, G.

S. R. Hunter, G. Maurer, L. Jiang, and G. Simelgor, Proc. SPIE 6206, 62061J (2006).
[CrossRef]

Su, L.

K. Goodson, M. Flik, L. Su, and D. A. Antoniadis, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 14, 490 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, J.

T. Ishizuya, J. Suzuki, K. Akagawa, and T. Kazama, in The Fifteenth IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2002), p. 578.

Swenson, C.

F. Kroeger and C. Swenson, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 853 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Varesi, J.

Y. Zhao, R. H. M. Mao, A. Majumdar, J. Varesi, P. Norton, and J. Kitching, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 11, 136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

F. Dong, Q. Zhang, D. Chen, L. Pan, Z. Guo, W. Wang, Z. Duan, and X. Wu, Sens. Actuat. A 133, 236 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X.

F. Dong, Q. Zhang, D. Chen, L. Pan, Z. Guo, W. Wang, Z. Duan, and X. Wu, Sens. Actuat. A 133, 236 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Guo, F. D. Q. Zhang, D. Chen, Z. Xiong, Z. Miao, C. Li, B. Jiao, and X. Wu, Sens. Actuat. A 137, 13 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Shi, B. Jiao, D. Chen, C. Li, D. Ding, Y. Ou, T. Ye, Z. Duan, X. Wu, and Q. Zhang, Sens. Actuat. A 133, 64 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, Z.

Z. Guo, F. D. Q. Zhang, D. Chen, Z. Xiong, Z. Miao, C. Li, B. Jiao, and X. Wu, Sens. Actuat. A 137, 13 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ye, T.

S. Shi, B. Jiao, D. Chen, C. Li, D. Ding, Y. Ou, T. Ye, Z. Duan, X. Wu, and Q. Zhang, Sens. Actuat. A 133, 64 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, F. D. Q.

Z. Guo, F. D. Q. Zhang, D. Chen, Z. Xiong, Z. Miao, C. Li, B. Jiao, and X. Wu, Sens. Actuat. A 137, 13 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

F. Dong, Q. Zhang, D. Chen, L. Pan, Z. Guo, W. Wang, Z. Duan, and X. Wu, Sens. Actuat. A 133, 236 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Shi, B. Jiao, D. Chen, C. Li, D. Ding, Y. Ou, T. Ye, Z. Duan, X. Wu, and Q. Zhang, Sens. Actuat. A 133, 64 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, R. H. M. Mao, A. Majumdar, J. Varesi, P. Norton, and J. Kitching, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 11, 136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Grbovic, N. V. Lavrik, P. G. Datskos, D. Forrai, E. Nelson, J. Devitt, and B. McIntyre, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 073118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

K. Goodson, M. Flik, L. Su, and D. A. Antoniadis, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 14, 490 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

F. Kroeger and C. Swenson, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 853 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. Grbovic, N. V. Lavrik, S. Rajic, and P. G. Datskos, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 054508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Microelectromech. Syst. (1)

Y. Zhao, R. H. M. Mao, A. Majumdar, J. Varesi, P. Norton, and J. Kitching, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 11, 136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

S. R. Hunter, G. Maurer, L. Jiang, and G. Simelgor, Proc. SPIE 6206, 62061J (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Salerno, Proc. SPIE 6542, 65421D (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

P. G. Datskos, N. V. Lavrik, and S. Rajic, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 1134 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuat. A (3)

S. Shi, B. Jiao, D. Chen, C. Li, D. Ding, Y. Ou, T. Ye, Z. Duan, X. Wu, and Q. Zhang, Sens. Actuat. A 133, 64 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Guo, F. D. Q. Zhang, D. Chen, Z. Xiong, Z. Miao, C. Li, B. Jiao, and X. Wu, Sens. Actuat. A 137, 13 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Dong, Q. Zhang, D. Chen, L. Pan, Z. Guo, W. Wang, Z. Duan, and X. Wu, Sens. Actuat. A 133, 236 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

D. Grbovic, “Imaging by detection of infrared photons using arrays of uncooled micromechanical detectors,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Tennessee, 2008).

T. Ishizuya, J. Suzuki, K. Akagawa, and T. Kazama, in The Fifteenth IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2002), p. 578.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Multifold structure was chosen in order to increase the effective lengths of both thermal isolation and bimaterial regions without increasing the overall detector size. (b) Micrograph images showing a single detector and part of the array.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Thermal image of a human hand obtained using an optical readout at atmospheric pressure and temperature.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

NETD histograms show that the peak number of individual detector elements exhibit NETD values of less than 200 mK, with some devices showing less than 50 mK.

Metrics