Abstract

A generic method for the continuously variable, long microwave-photonic delay of the impulse response of arbitrarily chirped waveforms is proposed and demonstrated. Nonlinear-frequency-modulated waveforms of 500 MHz bandwidth are delayed by tens of nanoseconds. The principle relies on the specific phase-time relations of the waveforms, and is applicable to chirped pulses of arbitrary durations, central radio frequencies, and bandwidths. The approach is suitable for beam steering in large phased-array antennas.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. I. Skolnik, Introduction to Radar Systems (McGraw-Hill, 2001).
  2. N. Levanon and E. Mozeson, Radar Signals (Wiley, 2004).
  3. A. W. Doerry, Sandia Report SAND2006-5856 (2006).
  4. I. Frigyes and A. Seeds, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 43, 2378 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Capmany and D. Novak, Nat. Photon. 1, 319 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. A. Morton and J. B. Khurgin, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 1686 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Sales, W. Xu, J. Mork, and I. Gasulla, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 58, 3022 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Chin, L. Thevenaz, J. Sancho, S. Sales, J. Capmany, P. Berger, J. Bourderionnet, and D. Dolfi, Opt. Express 18, 22599 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Zadok, O. Raz, A. Eyal, and M. Tur, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 462 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. O. Raz, S. Barzilay, R. Rothman, and M. Tur, J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 2774 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. Cruz, B. Ortega, M. V. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, and L. Dong, Electron. Lett. 33, 545 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. A. Riza, M. A. Arain, and S. A. Khan, J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 619 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. O. Raz, R. Rotman, and M. Tur, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1076 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Rotman, O. Raz, and M. Tur, J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4026 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. O. Klinger, Y. Stern, T. Schneider, K. Jamshidi, and A. Zadok, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24, 200 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Stern, O. Klinger, T. Schneider, K. Jamshidi, A. Peer, and A. Zadok, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 499 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. Zhang, Y. Zhu, J. Wang, and D. J. Gauthier, Opt. Express 18, 27263 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

O. Klinger, Y. Stern, T. Schneider, K. Jamshidi, and A. Zadok, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24, 200 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Stern, O. Klinger, T. Schneider, K. Jamshidi, A. Peer, and A. Zadok, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 499 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

2009 (1)

P. A. Morton and J. B. Khurgin, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 1686 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

A. Zadok, O. Raz, A. Eyal, and M. Tur, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 462 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Capmany and D. Novak, Nat. Photon. 1, 319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

O. Raz, R. Rotman, and M. Tur, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1076 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Rotman, O. Raz, and M. Tur, J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

1997 (1)

L. Cruz, B. Ortega, M. V. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, and L. Dong, Electron. Lett. 33, 545 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

I. Frigyes and A. Seeds, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 43, 2378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Andres, M. V.

L. Cruz, B. Ortega, M. V. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, and L. Dong, Electron. Lett. 33, 545 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Arain, M. A.

Barzilay, S.

Berger, P.

Bourderionnet, J.

Capmany, J.

S. Chin, L. Thevenaz, J. Sancho, S. Sales, J. Capmany, P. Berger, J. Bourderionnet, and D. Dolfi, Opt. Express 18, 22599 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Capmany and D. Novak, Nat. Photon. 1, 319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Cruz, B. Ortega, M. V. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, and L. Dong, Electron. Lett. 33, 545 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S.

Cruz, L.

L. Cruz, B. Ortega, M. V. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, and L. Dong, Electron. Lett. 33, 545 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Doerry, A. W.

A. W. Doerry, Sandia Report SAND2006-5856 (2006).

Dolfi, D.

Dong, L.

L. Cruz, B. Ortega, M. V. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, and L. Dong, Electron. Lett. 33, 545 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Eyal, A.

A. Zadok, O. Raz, A. Eyal, and M. Tur, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 462 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Frigyes, I.

I. Frigyes and A. Seeds, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 43, 2378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gasulla, I.

S. Sales, W. Xu, J. Mork, and I. Gasulla, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 58, 3022 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, D. J.

Gimeno, B.

L. Cruz, B. Ortega, M. V. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, and L. Dong, Electron. Lett. 33, 545 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jamshidi, K.

Y. Stern, O. Klinger, T. Schneider, K. Jamshidi, A. Peer, and A. Zadok, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 499 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. Klinger, Y. Stern, T. Schneider, K. Jamshidi, and A. Zadok, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24, 200 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Khan, S. A.

Khurgin, J. B.

P. A. Morton and J. B. Khurgin, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 1686 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Klinger, O.

O. Klinger, Y. Stern, T. Schneider, K. Jamshidi, and A. Zadok, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24, 200 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Stern, O. Klinger, T. Schneider, K. Jamshidi, A. Peer, and A. Zadok, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 499 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Levanon, N.

N. Levanon and E. Mozeson, Radar Signals (Wiley, 2004).

Mork, J.

S. Sales, W. Xu, J. Mork, and I. Gasulla, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 58, 3022 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Morton, P. A.

P. A. Morton and J. B. Khurgin, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 1686 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mozeson, E.

N. Levanon and E. Mozeson, Radar Signals (Wiley, 2004).

Novak, D.

J. Capmany and D. Novak, Nat. Photon. 1, 319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ortega, B.

L. Cruz, B. Ortega, M. V. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, and L. Dong, Electron. Lett. 33, 545 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pastor, D.

L. Cruz, B. Ortega, M. V. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, and L. Dong, Electron. Lett. 33, 545 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Peer, A.

Y. Stern, O. Klinger, T. Schneider, K. Jamshidi, A. Peer, and A. Zadok, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 499 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Raz, O.

O. Raz, S. Barzilay, R. Rothman, and M. Tur, J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 2774 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Zadok, O. Raz, A. Eyal, and M. Tur, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 462 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Rotman, O. Raz, and M. Tur, J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. Raz, R. Rotman, and M. Tur, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1076 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Riza, N. A.

Rothman, R.

Rotman, R.

O. Raz, R. Rotman, and M. Tur, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1076 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Rotman, O. Raz, and M. Tur, J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sales, S.

Sancho, J.

Schneider, T.

Y. Stern, O. Klinger, T. Schneider, K. Jamshidi, A. Peer, and A. Zadok, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 499 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. Klinger, Y. Stern, T. Schneider, K. Jamshidi, and A. Zadok, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24, 200 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Seeds, A.

I. Frigyes and A. Seeds, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 43, 2378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Skolnik, M. I.

M. I. Skolnik, Introduction to Radar Systems (McGraw-Hill, 2001).

Stern, Y.

Y. Stern, O. Klinger, T. Schneider, K. Jamshidi, A. Peer, and A. Zadok, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 499 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. Klinger, Y. Stern, T. Schneider, K. Jamshidi, and A. Zadok, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24, 200 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Thevenaz, L.

Tur, M.

O. Raz, S. Barzilay, R. Rothman, and M. Tur, J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 2774 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Zadok, O. Raz, A. Eyal, and M. Tur, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 462 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Rotman, O. Raz, and M. Tur, J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. Raz, R. Rotman, and M. Tur, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1076 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Xu, W.

S. Sales, W. Xu, J. Mork, and I. Gasulla, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 58, 3022 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zadok, A.

Y. Stern, O. Klinger, T. Schneider, K. Jamshidi, A. Peer, and A. Zadok, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 499 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. Klinger, Y. Stern, T. Schneider, K. Jamshidi, and A. Zadok, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24, 200 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Zadok, O. Raz, A. Eyal, and M. Tur, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 462 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, R.

Zhu, Y.

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. Cruz, B. Ortega, M. V. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, and L. Dong, Electron. Lett. 33, 545 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

Y. Stern, O. Klinger, T. Schneider, K. Jamshidi, A. Peer, and A. Zadok, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 499 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (4)

O. Klinger, Y. Stern, T. Schneider, K. Jamshidi, and A. Zadok, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24, 200 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. Raz, R. Rotman, and M. Tur, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1076 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Morton and J. B. Khurgin, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 1686 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Zadok, O. Raz, A. Eyal, and M. Tur, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 462 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. (2)

S. Sales, W. Xu, J. Mork, and I. Gasulla, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 58, 3022 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Frigyes and A. Seeds, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 43, 2378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Nat. Photon. (1)

J. Capmany and D. Novak, Nat. Photon. 1, 319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Other (3)

M. I. Skolnik, Introduction to Radar Systems (McGraw-Hill, 2001).

N. Levanon and E. Mozeson, Radar Signals (Wiley, 2004).

A. W. Doerry, Sandia Report SAND2006-5856 (2006).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Top: Instantaneous frequency as function of time for LFM (straight line) and 16th-order NLFM, k=0.015 (curved line). Both waveforms are 5 μs long and 500 MHz wide, with a central frequency of 2 GHz. Bottom: Corresponding impulse response functions.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Setup for the continuously variable delay of the impulse responses of chirped waveforms. EDFA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier. PC, polarization controller. PD, photodetector.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Calculated impulse response functions of experimentally obtained 4th-order NLFM waveforms of 5 μs duration and 500 MHz bandwidth. Peaks (right to left) correspond to a relative delay of 0, 10, 20, and 50 ns, obtained through a proper phase offsetting (5).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Calculated impulse response functions of experimentally obtained 8th-order (top) and 16th-order (bottom) NLFM waveforms of 5 μs duration and 500 MHz bandwidth. Curves (right to left) in both panels correspond to a relative delay of 0 and 20 ns, obtained through a proper phase offsetting (5).

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

AFM(t)=A0cos[φ(t)]·rect[t/T],
V(Δf)=V0[k+(1k)cosn(πΔfB)]1/2rect(ΔfB).
AFM(tΔt)=A0cos[φ(tΔt)]·rect[(tΔt)/T].
AFMshifted(t)=A0cos[φ(t)+Δφ(t)]·rect[t/T].
Δφ(t)=φ(tΔt)φ(t).

Metrics