Abstract

We report on the significant effect that intermodal dispersion can have on spatially and spectrally resolved interferometric (S2) fiber mode analysis. This dispersion can significantly broaden the measured intermodal group delay and could be misinterpreted as distributed scattering. In our new approach, the spectral interference data is analyzed over multiple wavelength windows staggered across the measurement bandwidth and assembled together to form a spectrogram that reveals the wavelength dependence of the intermodal group delay. Measurements on standard telecom single-mode and large-mode-area fibers are presented. This spectrogram analysis is a more accurate map of mode conversion along the fiber and is essential for evaluating fibers and fiber devices.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. W. Nicholson, A. D. Yablon, J. M. Fini, and M. D. Mermelstein, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 61 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. W. Nicholson, A. D. Yablon, S. Ramachandran, and S. Ghalmi, Opt. Express 16, 7233 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. M. Nguyen, S. Blin, T. N. Nguyen, S. D. Le, L. Provino, M. Thual, and T. Chartier, Appl. Opt. 51, 450 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Schimpf, R. Barankov, and S. Ramachandran, Opt. Express 19, 13008 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Bromage, J. M. Fini, C. Dorrer, and J. D. Zuegel, Appl. Opt. 50, 2001 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Jespersen, Z. Li, L. Nielsen, B. Palsdottir, F. Poletti, and J. Nicholson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OTh3I.4.

2012

2011

2009

J. W. Nicholson, A. D. Yablon, J. M. Fini, and M. D. Mermelstein, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 61 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

Barankov, R.

Blin, S.

Bromage, J.

Chartier, T.

Dorrer, C.

Fini, J. M.

J. Bromage, J. M. Fini, C. Dorrer, and J. D. Zuegel, Appl. Opt. 50, 2001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Nicholson, A. D. Yablon, J. M. Fini, and M. D. Mermelstein, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 61 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ghalmi, S.

Jespersen, K.

K. Jespersen, Z. Li, L. Nielsen, B. Palsdottir, F. Poletti, and J. Nicholson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OTh3I.4.

Le, S. D.

Li, Z.

K. Jespersen, Z. Li, L. Nielsen, B. Palsdottir, F. Poletti, and J. Nicholson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OTh3I.4.

Mermelstein, M. D.

J. W. Nicholson, A. D. Yablon, J. M. Fini, and M. D. Mermelstein, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 61 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, D. M.

Nguyen, T. N.

Nicholson, J.

K. Jespersen, Z. Li, L. Nielsen, B. Palsdottir, F. Poletti, and J. Nicholson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OTh3I.4.

Nicholson, J. W.

J. W. Nicholson, A. D. Yablon, J. M. Fini, and M. D. Mermelstein, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 61 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Nicholson, A. D. Yablon, S. Ramachandran, and S. Ghalmi, Opt. Express 16, 7233 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, L.

K. Jespersen, Z. Li, L. Nielsen, B. Palsdottir, F. Poletti, and J. Nicholson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OTh3I.4.

Palsdottir, B.

K. Jespersen, Z. Li, L. Nielsen, B. Palsdottir, F. Poletti, and J. Nicholson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OTh3I.4.

Poletti, F.

K. Jespersen, Z. Li, L. Nielsen, B. Palsdottir, F. Poletti, and J. Nicholson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OTh3I.4.

Provino, L.

Ramachandran, S.

Schimpf, D.

Thual, M.

Yablon, A. D.

J. W. Nicholson, A. D. Yablon, J. M. Fini, and M. D. Mermelstein, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 61 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Nicholson, A. D. Yablon, S. Ramachandran, and S. Ghalmi, Opt. Express 16, 7233 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zuegel, J. D.

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

J. W. Nicholson, A. D. Yablon, J. M. Fini, and M. D. Mermelstein, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 61 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Other

K. Jespersen, Z. Li, L. Nielsen, B. Palsdottir, F. Poletti, and J. Nicholson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OTh3I.4.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the experimental setup.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

S 2 data analysis for the LMA fiber using, (a) standard analysis [1,2], and (b) new spectrogram analysis showing a false color representation of variation in intermodal group delay as a function of wavelength. Insets in (b) show the retrieved mode intensity distribution at certain delay and wavelength values. (c) Simulated intermodal group delay as a function of wavelength.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectrogram recorded with the tightly coiled LMA fiber showing distributed scattering. Insets show retrieved mode images at a few representative positions.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Standard S 2 analysis and (b) new spectrogram, analysis of measurements on a standard telecom single mode fiber. Insets in (b) show two representative retrieved mode images.

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