Abstract

This Letter presents an active quench-and-reset circuit for Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GM-APDs). The integrated circuit was fabricated using a conventional 0.35 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor process. Experimental results show that the circuit is capable of linearly setting the hold-off time from several nanoseconds to microseconds with a resolution of 6.5 ns. This allows the selection of the optimal afterpulse-free hold-off time for the GM-APD via external digital inputs or additional signal processing circuitry. Moreover, this circuit resets the APD automatically following the end of the hold-off period, thus simplifying the control for the end user. Results also show that a minimum dead time of 28.4 ns is achieved, demonstrating a saturated photon-counting rate of 35.2Mcounts/s.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. Zappa, A. Lotito, A. C. Giudice, S. Cova, and M. Ghioni, IEEE J. Solid-St. Circ. 38, 1298 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Mita and G. Palumbo, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 57, 543 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Cronin and A. P. Morrison, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 911 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Deng and A. P. Morrison, 19th International Conference on Mixed Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, MIXDES 2012 (IEEE Computer Society, 2012), pp. 269–272.
  5. D. M. Taylor, J. C. Jackson, A. P. Morrison, A. Mathewson, and J. G. Rarity, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1323 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. C. Jackson, J. Donnelly, B. O’Neill, A. M. Kelleher, G. Healy, A. P. Morrison, and A. Mathewson, Electron. Lett. 39, 735 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. M. Moloney, A. P. Morrison, J. C. Jackson, A. Mathewson, J. Alderman, J. Donnelly, B. O’Neill, A. M. Kelleher, G. Healy, and P. J. Murphy, Electron. Lett. 39, 391 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

R. Mita and G. Palumbo, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 57, 543 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

D. Cronin and A. P. Morrison, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

D. M. Taylor, J. C. Jackson, A. P. Morrison, A. Mathewson, and J. G. Rarity, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

J. C. Jackson, J. Donnelly, B. O’Neill, A. M. Kelleher, G. Healy, A. P. Morrison, and A. Mathewson, Electron. Lett. 39, 735 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Moloney, A. P. Morrison, J. C. Jackson, A. Mathewson, J. Alderman, J. Donnelly, B. O’Neill, A. M. Kelleher, G. Healy, and P. J. Murphy, Electron. Lett. 39, 391 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Zappa, A. Lotito, A. C. Giudice, S. Cova, and M. Ghioni, IEEE J. Solid-St. Circ. 38, 1298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Alderman, J.

A. M. Moloney, A. P. Morrison, J. C. Jackson, A. Mathewson, J. Alderman, J. Donnelly, B. O’Neill, A. M. Kelleher, G. Healy, and P. J. Murphy, Electron. Lett. 39, 391 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cova, S.

F. Zappa, A. Lotito, A. C. Giudice, S. Cova, and M. Ghioni, IEEE J. Solid-St. Circ. 38, 1298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cronin, D.

D. Cronin and A. P. Morrison, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Deng, S.

S. Deng and A. P. Morrison, 19th International Conference on Mixed Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, MIXDES 2012 (IEEE Computer Society, 2012), pp. 269–272.

Donnelly, J.

A. M. Moloney, A. P. Morrison, J. C. Jackson, A. Mathewson, J. Alderman, J. Donnelly, B. O’Neill, A. M. Kelleher, G. Healy, and P. J. Murphy, Electron. Lett. 39, 391 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Jackson, J. Donnelly, B. O’Neill, A. M. Kelleher, G. Healy, A. P. Morrison, and A. Mathewson, Electron. Lett. 39, 735 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ghioni, M.

F. Zappa, A. Lotito, A. C. Giudice, S. Cova, and M. Ghioni, IEEE J. Solid-St. Circ. 38, 1298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Giudice, A. C.

F. Zappa, A. Lotito, A. C. Giudice, S. Cova, and M. Ghioni, IEEE J. Solid-St. Circ. 38, 1298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Healy, G.

J. C. Jackson, J. Donnelly, B. O’Neill, A. M. Kelleher, G. Healy, A. P. Morrison, and A. Mathewson, Electron. Lett. 39, 735 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Moloney, A. P. Morrison, J. C. Jackson, A. Mathewson, J. Alderman, J. Donnelly, B. O’Neill, A. M. Kelleher, G. Healy, and P. J. Murphy, Electron. Lett. 39, 391 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, J. C.

D. M. Taylor, J. C. Jackson, A. P. Morrison, A. Mathewson, and J. G. Rarity, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Jackson, J. Donnelly, B. O’Neill, A. M. Kelleher, G. Healy, A. P. Morrison, and A. Mathewson, Electron. Lett. 39, 735 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Moloney, A. P. Morrison, J. C. Jackson, A. Mathewson, J. Alderman, J. Donnelly, B. O’Neill, A. M. Kelleher, G. Healy, and P. J. Murphy, Electron. Lett. 39, 391 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kelleher, A. M.

J. C. Jackson, J. Donnelly, B. O’Neill, A. M. Kelleher, G. Healy, A. P. Morrison, and A. Mathewson, Electron. Lett. 39, 735 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Moloney, A. P. Morrison, J. C. Jackson, A. Mathewson, J. Alderman, J. Donnelly, B. O’Neill, A. M. Kelleher, G. Healy, and P. J. Murphy, Electron. Lett. 39, 391 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lotito, A.

F. Zappa, A. Lotito, A. C. Giudice, S. Cova, and M. Ghioni, IEEE J. Solid-St. Circ. 38, 1298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mathewson, A.

D. M. Taylor, J. C. Jackson, A. P. Morrison, A. Mathewson, and J. G. Rarity, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Moloney, A. P. Morrison, J. C. Jackson, A. Mathewson, J. Alderman, J. Donnelly, B. O’Neill, A. M. Kelleher, G. Healy, and P. J. Murphy, Electron. Lett. 39, 391 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Jackson, J. Donnelly, B. O’Neill, A. M. Kelleher, G. Healy, A. P. Morrison, and A. Mathewson, Electron. Lett. 39, 735 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mita, R.

R. Mita and G. Palumbo, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 57, 543 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moloney, A. M.

A. M. Moloney, A. P. Morrison, J. C. Jackson, A. Mathewson, J. Alderman, J. Donnelly, B. O’Neill, A. M. Kelleher, G. Healy, and P. J. Murphy, Electron. Lett. 39, 391 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, A. P.

D. Cronin and A. P. Morrison, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Taylor, J. C. Jackson, A. P. Morrison, A. Mathewson, and J. G. Rarity, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Moloney, A. P. Morrison, J. C. Jackson, A. Mathewson, J. Alderman, J. Donnelly, B. O’Neill, A. M. Kelleher, G. Healy, and P. J. Murphy, Electron. Lett. 39, 391 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Jackson, J. Donnelly, B. O’Neill, A. M. Kelleher, G. Healy, A. P. Morrison, and A. Mathewson, Electron. Lett. 39, 735 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Deng and A. P. Morrison, 19th International Conference on Mixed Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, MIXDES 2012 (IEEE Computer Society, 2012), pp. 269–272.

Murphy, P. J.

A. M. Moloney, A. P. Morrison, J. C. Jackson, A. Mathewson, J. Alderman, J. Donnelly, B. O’Neill, A. M. Kelleher, G. Healy, and P. J. Murphy, Electron. Lett. 39, 391 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O’Neill, B.

A. M. Moloney, A. P. Morrison, J. C. Jackson, A. Mathewson, J. Alderman, J. Donnelly, B. O’Neill, A. M. Kelleher, G. Healy, and P. J. Murphy, Electron. Lett. 39, 391 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Jackson, J. Donnelly, B. O’Neill, A. M. Kelleher, G. Healy, A. P. Morrison, and A. Mathewson, Electron. Lett. 39, 735 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Palumbo, G.

R. Mita and G. Palumbo, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 57, 543 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rarity, J. G.

D. M. Taylor, J. C. Jackson, A. P. Morrison, A. Mathewson, and J. G. Rarity, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, D. M.

D. M. Taylor, J. C. Jackson, A. P. Morrison, A. Mathewson, and J. G. Rarity, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zappa, F.

F. Zappa, A. Lotito, A. C. Giudice, S. Cova, and M. Ghioni, IEEE J. Solid-St. Circ. 38, 1298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

J. C. Jackson, J. Donnelly, B. O’Neill, A. M. Kelleher, G. Healy, A. P. Morrison, and A. Mathewson, Electron. Lett. 39, 735 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Moloney, A. P. Morrison, J. C. Jackson, A. Mathewson, J. Alderman, J. Donnelly, B. O’Neill, A. M. Kelleher, G. Healy, and P. J. Murphy, Electron. Lett. 39, 391 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Cronin and A. P. Morrison, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Solid-St. Circ. (1)

F. Zappa, A. Lotito, A. C. Giudice, S. Cova, and M. Ghioni, IEEE J. Solid-St. Circ. 38, 1298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

R. Mita and G. Palumbo, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 57, 543 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

D. M. Taylor, J. C. Jackson, A. P. Morrison, A. Mathewson, and J. G. Rarity, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

S. Deng and A. P. Morrison, 19th International Conference on Mixed Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, MIXDES 2012 (IEEE Computer Society, 2012), pp. 269–272.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Block diagram of the fabricated active quench and reset circuit.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of the 8-bit synchronous binary counter.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Photograph of the fabricated chip.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Quenching pulse (Qp) and APD’s cathode voltage (Vcathode) with a hold-off time of 190 ns (00011101) and (b) Vcathode with hold-off time=326ns (00110010); (c) Vcathode with hold-off time=1.18μs (10110101).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

External input codes versus hold-off time.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Plot of Vcathode for saturated count rate.

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