Abstract

We demonstrate an improved femtosecond laser irradiation followed by chemical etching process to create complex three-dimensional (3D) microchannels with arbitrary length and uniform diameter inside fused silica. A segmented chemical etching method of introducing extra access ports and a secondary power compensation is presented, which enables the fabrication of uniform 3D helical microchannels with length of 1.140 cm and aspect-ratio of 522. Based on this method, a micromixer which consists of a long helical microchannel and a y-tape microchannel was created inside the fused silica. We measured the mixing properties of the micromixer by injecting the phenolphthalein and NaOH solution through the two inlets of the y-tape microchannel. A rapid and efficient mixing was achieved in the 3D micromixer at a low Reynolds number.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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2012 (1)

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Chen, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikava, LAB On Chip 12, 746 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

R. Osellame, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 442 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li and S. Qu, Opt. Lett. 36, 4236 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

Y. Liao, Y. Ju, L. Zhang, F. He, Q. Zhang, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, Opt. Lett. 35, 3225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. He, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, Y. Liao, J. Xu, H. Sun, C. Wang, Z. Zhou, K. Sogioka, K. Midorikawa, Y. Xu, and X. Chen, Opt. Lett 35, 282 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

2008 (1)

A. A. S. Bhagat, S. S. Kuntaegowdanahalli, and I. Papautsky, LAB On Chip 8, 1906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

G. M. Whitesides, Nature 442, 368 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. J. DeMello, Nature 442, 394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Sudarsan and V. M. Ugaz, LAB On Chip 6, 74 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

2001 (2)

Bado, P.

Bellini, N.

Bellouard, Y.

Bhagat, A. A. S.

A. A. S. Bhagat, S. S. Kuntaegowdanahalli, and I. Papautsky, LAB On Chip 8, 1906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cavallotti, P. L.

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

R. Osellame, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 442 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Vishnubhatla, N. Bellini, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, Opt. Express 17, 8685 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Chen, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikava, LAB On Chip 12, 746 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liao, Y. Ju, L. Zhang, F. He, Q. Zhang, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, Opt. Lett. 35, 3225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

C. Li, T. Chen, J. Si, F. Chen, X. Shi, and X. Hou, J. Micromech. Microeng. 19, 125007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T.

C. Li, T. Chen, J. Si, F. Chen, X. Shi, and X. Hou, J. Micromech. Microeng. 19, 125007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

F. He, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, Y. Liao, J. Xu, H. Sun, C. Wang, Z. Zhou, K. Sogioka, K. Midorikawa, Y. Xu, and X. Chen, Opt. Lett 35, 282 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Chen, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikava, LAB On Chip 12, 746 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

DeMello, A. J.

A. J. DeMello, Nature 442, 394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dugan, M.

Grenier, J. R.

He, F.

Y. Liao, Y. Ju, L. Zhang, F. He, Q. Zhang, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, Opt. Lett. 35, 3225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. He, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, Y. Liao, J. Xu, H. Sun, C. Wang, Z. Zhou, K. Sogioka, K. Midorikawa, Y. Xu, and X. Chen, Opt. Lett 35, 282 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Herman, P. R.

Ho, S.

Hoekstra, H. J. W. M.

R. Osellame, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 442 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hou, X.

C. Li, T. Chen, J. Si, F. Chen, X. Shi, and X. Hou, J. Micromech. Microeng. 19, 125007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, K.

Ius, A. M.

Jiang, Y.

Ju, Y.

Juodkazis, S.

Kawachi, M.

Kuntaegowdanahalli, S. S.

A. A. S. Bhagat, S. S. Kuntaegowdanahalli, and I. Papautsky, LAB On Chip 8, 1906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kuroda, D.

Laporta, P.

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

C. Li, T. Chen, J. Si, F. Chen, X. Shi, and X. Hou, J. Micromech. Microeng. 19, 125007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, E.

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Chen, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikava, LAB On Chip 12, 746 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Liao, Y.

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Chen, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikava, LAB On Chip 12, 746 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. He, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, Y. Liao, J. Xu, H. Sun, C. Wang, Z. Zhou, K. Sogioka, K. Midorikawa, Y. Xu, and X. Chen, Opt. Lett 35, 282 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liao, Y. Ju, L. Zhang, F. He, Q. Zhang, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, Opt. Lett. 35, 3225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Y.

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Chen, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikava, LAB On Chip 12, 746 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Madou, M. J.

M. J. Madou, Fundamentals of Microfabrication: The Science of Miniaturization (CRC, 2002).

Magagnin, L.

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maselli, V.

V. Maselli, J. R. Grenier, S. Ho, and P. R. Herman, Opt. Express 17, 11719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, M.

Matsuo, S.

Midorikava, K.

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Chen, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikava, LAB On Chip 12, 746 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Midorikawa, K.

Misawa, H.

Miwa, M.

Nishii, J.

Osellame, R.

R. Osellame, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 442 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Vishnubhatla, N. Bellini, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, Opt. Express 17, 8685 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Papautsky, I.

A. A. S. Bhagat, S. S. Kuntaegowdanahalli, and I. Papautsky, LAB On Chip 8, 1906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

R. Osellame, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 442 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Qu, S.

Ramponi, R.

K. C. Vishnubhatla, N. Bellini, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, Opt. Express 17, 8685 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Said, A.

Shen, Y.

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Chen, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikava, LAB On Chip 12, 746 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liao, Y. Ju, L. Zhang, F. He, Q. Zhang, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, Opt. Lett. 35, 3225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shi, X.

C. Li, T. Chen, J. Si, F. Chen, X. Shi, and X. Hou, J. Micromech. Microeng. 19, 125007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shihoyama, K.

Si, J.

C. Li, T. Chen, J. Si, F. Chen, X. Shi, and X. Hou, J. Micromech. Microeng. 19, 125007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sogioka, K.

F. He, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, Y. Liao, J. Xu, H. Sun, C. Wang, Z. Zhou, K. Sogioka, K. Midorikawa, Y. Xu, and X. Chen, Opt. Lett 35, 282 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Song, J.

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Chen, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikava, LAB On Chip 12, 746 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sudarsan, A. P.

A. P. Sudarsan and V. M. Ugaz, LAB On Chip 6, 74 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sugioka, K.

Sun, H.

F. He, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, Y. Liao, J. Xu, H. Sun, C. Wang, Z. Zhou, K. Sogioka, K. Midorikawa, Y. Xu, and X. Chen, Opt. Lett 35, 282 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Toyoda, K.

Ugaz, V. M.

A. P. Sudarsan and V. M. Ugaz, LAB On Chip 6, 74 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vazquez, R. M.

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vishnubhatla, K. C.

Wang, C.

F. He, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, Y. Liao, J. Xu, H. Sun, C. Wang, Z. Zhou, K. Sogioka, K. Midorikawa, Y. Xu, and X. Chen, Opt. Lett 35, 282 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

Watanabe, W.

Whitesides, G. M.

G. M. Whitesides, Nature 442, 368 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

F. He, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, Y. Liao, J. Xu, H. Sun, C. Wang, Z. Zhou, K. Sogioka, K. Midorikawa, Y. Xu, and X. Chen, Opt. Lett 35, 282 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

F. He, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, Y. Liao, J. Xu, H. Sun, C. Wang, Z. Zhou, K. Sogioka, K. Midorikawa, Y. Xu, and X. Chen, Opt. Lett 35, 282 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Chen, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikava, LAB On Chip 12, 746 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. He, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, Y. Liao, J. Xu, H. Sun, C. Wang, Z. Zhou, K. Sogioka, K. Midorikawa, Y. Xu, and X. Chen, Opt. Lett 35, 282 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liao, Y. Ju, L. Zhang, F. He, Q. Zhang, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, Opt. Lett. 35, 3225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

Zhang, L.

Zhang, Q.

Zhou, Z.

F. He, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, Y. Liao, J. Xu, H. Sun, C. Wang, Z. Zhou, K. Sogioka, K. Midorikawa, Y. Xu, and X. Chen, Opt. Lett 35, 282 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

C. Li, T. Chen, J. Si, F. Chen, X. Shi, and X. Hou, J. Micromech. Microeng. 19, 125007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

LAB On Chip (3)

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Chen, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikava, LAB On Chip 12, 746 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Sudarsan and V. M. Ugaz, LAB On Chip 6, 74 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. S. Bhagat, S. S. Kuntaegowdanahalli, and I. Papautsky, LAB On Chip 8, 1906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

R. Osellame, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 442 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

G. M. Whitesides, Nature 442, 368 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. J. DeMello, Nature 442, 394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett (1)

F. He, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, Y. Liao, J. Xu, H. Sun, C. Wang, Z. Zhou, K. Sogioka, K. Midorikawa, Y. Xu, and X. Chen, Opt. Lett 35, 282 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Other (1)

M. J. Madou, Fundamentals of Microfabrication: The Science of Miniaturization (CRC, 2002).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic diagram of the line written inside sample. (b) The optical micrograph of a channel with a non-etched area in its middle. (c) Schematic diagram of microchannels with extra access ports written into the channel. (d) The optical micrograph of a channel with extra access ports. The scale bar represents 300 μm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Optical micrograph of channels fabricated under different laser power. The scale bar equals represents 200 μm. (b) Dependence of the diameters of left entrances in channels on the scanning laser power.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Schematic diagrams of laser-writing line with extra access ports. (b) The laser power curve along the direction of the laser scanning. (c) The optical micrograph of the fabricated uniform channel inside fused silica. The scale bar equals 200 μm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Schematic diagrams of the fabrication process. First, the femtosecond laser writes inside the fused silica. Then, the sample is etched in HF solution. Finally, the PDMS seals the extra access ports.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Optical micrograph of a helical channel. The scale bar represents 200 μm. Inset: the side view of the channel (the scale bar is 100 μm). (b) The optical micrograph of the helical micromixer fabricated inside fused silica. The scale bar equals 200 μm. (c) The optical micrograph of microfluidic mixing experiment at Re2. The scale bar equals 100 μm.

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