Abstract

We report an in-fiber linear polarizer structured by UV-inscribing a 45° tilted fiber grating (TFG) into polarization maintaining (PM) fiber along its principal axis. The polarization extinction ratio (PER) achieved by a 48 mm long 45° TFG has reached 46 dB at 1550 nm and the overall PER is >40dB over a 50 nm wavelength range. Such 45° TFG based polarizers have many advantages over conventional products, including low loss, low cost, simple fabrication process, and no physical modification to the fiber, thus offering high stability and capable of handling high power.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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F. Gonthier, L. Martineau, N. Azami, M. Faucher, F. Seguin, D. Stryckman, and A. Villeneuve, Proc. SPIE 266, 266 (2004).
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T. A. S. P. S. Westbrook and T. Erdogan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1352 (2000).
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J. Albert, L. Y. Shao, and C. Caucheteur, “Tilted fiber Bragg gratings sensors,” Laser Photon. Rev. (to be published).
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F. Gonthier, L. Martineau, N. Azami, M. Faucher, F. Seguin, D. Stryckman, and A. Villeneuve, Proc. SPIE 266, 266 (2004).
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Bao, Q.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, Nature Photon. 5, 411 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

Caucheteur, C.

J. Albert, L. Y. Shao, and C. Caucheteur, “Tilted fiber Bragg gratings sensors,” Laser Photon. Rev. (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. L.

Chen, X.

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T. A. S. P. S. Westbrook and T. Erdogan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1352 (2000).
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Faucher, M.

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Genack, A. Z.

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Handerek, V. A.

Johnson, D. C.

R. B. W. S. J. Mihailov, T. J. Stocki, and D. C. Johnson, Electron. Lett. 37, 284 (2001).
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Kopp, V. I.

V. I. Kopp and A. Z. Genack, Nature Photon. 5, 470(2011).
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Li, C.

Lim, C. H. Y. X.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, Nature Photon. 5, 411 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Loh, K. P.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, Nature Photon. 5, 411 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C. A.

C. A. Lu and G. T. Moore, Adv. OptoElectron. 2010, 179813 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Martineau, L.

F. Gonthier, L. Martineau, N. Azami, M. Faucher, F. Seguin, D. Stryckman, and A. Villeneuve, Proc. SPIE 266, 266 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mihailov, R. B. W. S. J.

R. B. W. S. J. Mihailov, T. J. Stocki, and D. C. Johnson, Electron. Lett. 37, 284 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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C. A. Lu and G. T. Moore, Adv. OptoElectron. 2010, 179813 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Ni, Z.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, Nature Photon. 5, 411 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Qian, J.-R.

Seguin, F.

F. Gonthier, L. Martineau, N. Azami, M. Faucher, F. Seguin, D. Stryckman, and A. Villeneuve, Proc. SPIE 266, 266 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shao, L. Y.

J. Albert, L. Y. Shao, and C. Caucheteur, “Tilted fiber Bragg gratings sensors,” Laser Photon. Rev. (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, G.

Stocki, T. J.

R. B. W. S. J. Mihailov, T. J. Stocki, and D. C. Johnson, Electron. Lett. 37, 284 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stryckman, D.

F. Gonthier, L. Martineau, N. Azami, M. Faucher, F. Seguin, D. Stryckman, and A. Villeneuve, Proc. SPIE 266, 266 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Su, J.

Tang, D. Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, Nature Photon. 5, 411 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, A.

F. Gonthier, L. Martineau, N. Azami, M. Faucher, F. Seguin, D. Stryckman, and A. Villeneuve, Proc. SPIE 266, 266 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, Nature Photon. 5, 411 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, Nature Photon. 5, 411 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Westbrook, T. A. S. P. S.

T. A. S. P. S. Westbrook and T. Erdogan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1352 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xue, L.-L.

Yan, Z.

Yang, L.

Zhang, H.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, Nature Photon. 5, 411 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Zhou, K.

Adv. OptoElectron.

C. A. Lu and G. T. Moore, Adv. OptoElectron. 2010, 179813 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

R. B. W. S. J. Mihailov, T. J. Stocki, and D. C. Johnson, Electron. Lett. 37, 284 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

T. A. S. P. S. Westbrook and T. Erdogan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1352 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Nature Photon.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, Nature Photon. 5, 411 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Kopp and A. Z. Genack, Nature Photon. 5, 470(2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

F. Gonthier, L. Martineau, N. Azami, M. Faucher, F. Seguin, D. Stryckman, and A. Villeneuve, Proc. SPIE 266, 266 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Albert, L. Y. Shao, and C. Caucheteur, “Tilted fiber Bragg gratings sensors,” Laser Photon. Rev. (to be published).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of a 45° TFG with defined slow- and fast-axis operation principle as an in-fiber polarizer for UV-inscription along (a) the fast-axis and (b) the slow-axis of a PM fiber.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

UV beam diffraction images by (a) and (b) a normal phase mask and fiber and (d) and (e) a tilted phase mask and fiber. Schematic of effective ±1 order UV beam interference area after (c) a normal and (f) a tilted phase mask.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Micro-images of 45° TFGs in PM fibers inscribed along (a) slow- and (b) fast-axis. When launched with 633 nm red light to the 45° TFG inscribed along the fiber fast-axis, (c) no side radiation when observing from the fast-axis and (d) strong radiation from surface when observing along the slow-axis.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Transmission spectra of a 48 mm-long 45° TFG measured using a single wavelength at 1550 nm at two orthogonal polarization states (P1 and P2). (b) PER as a function of grating length (5, 15, 25, and 48 mm).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Polarization distribution for three 45° TFGs with PERs of 10 dB (▴), 20 dB (•), and 40 dB (▪) and a bare fiber (▾). (b) PER profile from 1525 to 1605 nm measured by LUNA optical vector analyzer 2000.

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