Abstract

A method of transferring an RF reference frequency through the turbulent atmosphere is presented. Using two optical wavelengths close to each other can compensate for the influence of the atmospheric piston error. The influence of the atmosphere on the phase of the optical signal is calculated together with the remaining error by transferring two carriers. The system was implemented in a laboratory test-bed, and stability measurements are shown.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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2010

2009

B. Sprenger, J. Zhang, Z. H. Lu, and L. J. Wang, Opt. Lett. 34, 965 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Terra, G. Grosche, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, T. Legero, U. Sterr, B. Lipphardt, and H. Schnatz, Appl. Phys. B 97, 541 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Giggenbach, Proc. SPIE 7480, 74800I (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

N. Perlot, M. Knapek, D. Giggenbach, J. Horwath, M. Brechtelsbauer, Y. Takayama, and T. Jono, Proc. SPIE 6457, 645704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

1999

F. S. Solheim, J. Vivekanandan, R. H. Ware, and C. Rocken, J. Geophys. Res. 104, 9663 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1987

D. W. Allan, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 36, 646 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1977

Acef, O.

Allan, D. W.

D. W. Allan, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 36, 646 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Allan and J. A. Barnes, in 35th Annual Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 1981), pp. 470–475.

Amy-Klein, A.

Andrews, L.

L. Andrews and R. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation Through Random Media, 2nd ed. (SPIE, 2005).

Barnes, J. A.

D. W. Allan and J. A. Barnes, in 35th Annual Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 1981), pp. 470–475.

Brechtelsbauer, M.

N. Perlot, M. Knapek, D. Giggenbach, J. Horwath, M. Brechtelsbauer, Y. Takayama, and T. Jono, Proc. SPIE 6457, 645704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chanteau, B.

Chardonnet, C.

Clairon, A.

Djerroud, K.

Gerthsen,

Gerthsen, Kneser, and Vogel, Physik (Springer-Verlag, 1986).

Giggenbach, D.

D. Giggenbach, Proc. SPIE 7480, 74800I (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Perlot, M. Knapek, D. Giggenbach, J. Horwath, M. Brechtelsbauer, Y. Takayama, and T. Jono, Proc. SPIE 6457, 645704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Giggenbach and R. Mata-Calvo, “Verfahren zur hochgenauen Übertragung von Zeit- oder Frequenznormalen,” submitted patent, DE102010021197 (2010).

Greenwood, D. P.

Grosche, G.

O. Terra, G. Grosche, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, T. Legero, U. Sterr, B. Lipphardt, and H. Schnatz, Appl. Phys. B 97, 541 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Haboucha, A.

Hardy, J. W.

J. W. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes (Oxford University, 1998).

Holzwarth, R.

O. Terra, G. Grosche, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, T. Legero, U. Sterr, B. Lipphardt, and H. Schnatz, Appl. Phys. B 97, 541 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hoque, M.

M. Hoque and N. Jakowski, J. Geodesy81, 259 (2007).

Horwath, J.

N. Perlot, M. Knapek, D. Giggenbach, J. Horwath, M. Brechtelsbauer, Y. Takayama, and T. Jono, Proc. SPIE 6457, 645704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Howe, D. A.

W. Riley and D. A. Howe, Handbook of Frequency Stability Analysis. (NIST—National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2008).

Jakowski, N.

M. Hoque and N. Jakowski, J. Geodesy81, 259 (2007).

Jiang, H.

Jono, T.

N. Perlot, M. Knapek, D. Giggenbach, J. Horwath, M. Brechtelsbauer, Y. Takayama, and T. Jono, Proc. SPIE 6457, 645704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kéfélian, F.

Kirchner, D.

D. Kirchner, in Review of Radio Sciences 1996–1999(Wiley-IEEE, 1999), p. 27.

Knapek, M.

N. Perlot, M. Knapek, D. Giggenbach, J. Horwath, M. Brechtelsbauer, Y. Takayama, and T. Jono, Proc. SPIE 6457, 645704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kneser,

Gerthsen, Kneser, and Vogel, Physik (Springer-Verlag, 1986).

Kraus, H.

H. Kraus, Die Atmosphäre der Erde (Springer-Verlag, 2001).

Legero, T.

O. Terra, G. Grosche, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, T. Legero, U. Sterr, B. Lipphardt, and H. Schnatz, Appl. Phys. B 97, 541 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lemonde, P.

Lipphardt, B.

O. Terra, G. Grosche, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, T. Legero, U. Sterr, B. Lipphardt, and H. Schnatz, Appl. Phys. B 97, 541 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, O.

Lu, Z. H.

Man, C. N.

Mata-Calvo, R.

D. Giggenbach and R. Mata-Calvo, “Verfahren zur hochgenauen Übertragung von Zeit- oder Frequenznormalen,” submitted patent, DE102010021197 (2010).

Perlot, N.

N. Perlot, M. Knapek, D. Giggenbach, J. Horwath, M. Brechtelsbauer, Y. Takayama, and T. Jono, Proc. SPIE 6457, 645704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, R.

L. Andrews and R. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation Through Random Media, 2nd ed. (SPIE, 2005).

Predehl, K.

O. Terra, G. Grosche, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, T. Legero, U. Sterr, B. Lipphardt, and H. Schnatz, Appl. Phys. B 97, 541 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Riley, W.

W. Riley and D. A. Howe, Handbook of Frequency Stability Analysis. (NIST—National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2008).

Rocken, C.

F. S. Solheim, J. Vivekanandan, R. H. Ware, and C. Rocken, J. Geophys. Res. 104, 9663 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Roncin, V.

Samain, E.

Santarelli, G.

Schnatz, H.

O. Terra, G. Grosche, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, T. Legero, U. Sterr, B. Lipphardt, and H. Schnatz, Appl. Phys. B 97, 541 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Solheim, F. S.

F. S. Solheim, J. Vivekanandan, R. H. Ware, and C. Rocken, J. Geophys. Res. 104, 9663 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sprenger, B.

Sterr, U.

O. Terra, G. Grosche, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, T. Legero, U. Sterr, B. Lipphardt, and H. Schnatz, Appl. Phys. B 97, 541 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Takayama, Y.

N. Perlot, M. Knapek, D. Giggenbach, J. Horwath, M. Brechtelsbauer, Y. Takayama, and T. Jono, Proc. SPIE 6457, 645704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Terra, O.

O. Terra, G. Grosche, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, T. Legero, U. Sterr, B. Lipphardt, and H. Schnatz, Appl. Phys. B 97, 541 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vivekanandan, J.

F. S. Solheim, J. Vivekanandan, R. H. Ware, and C. Rocken, J. Geophys. Res. 104, 9663 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vogel,

Gerthsen, Kneser, and Vogel, Physik (Springer-Verlag, 1986).

Wang, L. J.

Ware, R. H.

F. S. Solheim, J. Vivekanandan, R. H. Ware, and C. Rocken, J. Geophys. Res. 104, 9663 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, P.

Zhang, J.

Appl. Phys. B

O. Terra, G. Grosche, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, T. Legero, U. Sterr, B. Lipphardt, and H. Schnatz, Appl. Phys. B 97, 541 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.

D. W. Allan, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 36, 646 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

F. S. Solheim, J. Vivekanandan, R. H. Ware, and C. Rocken, J. Geophys. Res. 104, 9663 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

N. Perlot, M. Knapek, D. Giggenbach, J. Horwath, M. Brechtelsbauer, Y. Takayama, and T. Jono, Proc. SPIE 6457, 645704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Giggenbach, Proc. SPIE 7480, 74800I (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. Giggenbach and R. Mata-Calvo, “Verfahren zur hochgenauen Übertragung von Zeit- oder Frequenznormalen,” submitted patent, DE102010021197 (2010).

L. Andrews and R. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation Through Random Media, 2nd ed. (SPIE, 2005).

M. Hoque and N. Jakowski, J. Geodesy81, 259 (2007).

D. Kirchner, in Review of Radio Sciences 1996–1999(Wiley-IEEE, 1999), p. 27.

D. W. Allan and J. A. Barnes, in 35th Annual Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 1981), pp. 470–475.

Gerthsen, Kneser, and Vogel, Physik (Springer-Verlag, 1986).

H. Kraus, Die Atmosphäre der Erde (Springer-Verlag, 2001).

J. W. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes (Oxford University, 1998).

W. Riley and D. A. Howe, Handbook of Frequency Stability Analysis. (NIST—National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2008).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Theoretically calculated Allan deviation for LEO downlink (500 km) and horizontal link (1 km), limited by IRT.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

One-way IRT-robust frequency dissemination system.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured overlapping Allan deviation according to [18].

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

[cos(ωot+Δφ)+cos((ωo+ωRF)·t+Δφ)]2.
σy2(τ)=12τ2[4Dx(τ)Dx(2τ)].
Dx(τ)=[x(t+τ)x(t)]2=Dφ(τ)ω02.
CΔn2(z)=[5.8·1021(λ22λ12λ22λ12)P(z)T2(z)]2CT2(z).

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