Abstract

A flexible design of slot photonic crystal waveguide with a wide comb is investigated. Introduction of a carefully designed comb within the photonic crystal waveguide allows an accurate dispersion engineering in order to achieve slow light and increase the optical confinement within the comb. The strong light confinement results in an extremely small nonlinear effective area around 0.015μm2. We report experimental realization of a comb photonic crystal waveguide with measured group indices higher than 100 in a Mach–Zehnder interferometer configuration and extract losses limited to 3.7 dB for a 100 μm device at ng=37.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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2011 (3)

2010 (4)

L. O’Faolain, S. A. Schulz, D. M. Beggs, T. P. White, M. Spasenović, L. Kuipers, F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, S. Mazoyer, J. P. Hugonin, P. Lalanne, and T. F. Krauss, Opt. Express 18, 27627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 344 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, Nat. Photon. 4, 535 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 093304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

J.-H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, N. Zhu, Y. Tang, L. Wosinski, D. Dai, and S. He, Opt. Lett. 34, 1498 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

J.-M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, Opt. Express 16, 4177 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Baba, Nat. Photon. 2, 465 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Di Falco, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2005 (2)

J. B. Khurgin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1062 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, Nature 438, 65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Andreani, L. C.

Baba, T.

T. Baba, Nat. Photon. 2, 465 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beggs, D. M.

Brosi, J.-M.

Bruns, J.

J.-H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Caer, C.

C. Caer, X. Le Roux, V. K. Do, D. Marris-Morini, N. Izard, L. Vivien, D. Gao, and E. Cassan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1298 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

C. Caer, X. Le Roux, V. K. Do, D. Marris-Morini, N. Izard, L. Vivien, D. Gao, and E. Cassan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1298 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chakravarty, S.

X. Wang, C.-Y. Lin, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, Opt. Lett. 36, 882 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 093304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. T.

X. Wang, C.-Y. Lin, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, Opt. Lett. 36, 882 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 093304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Corcoran, B.

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 344 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dai, D.

de Sterke, C. M.

Di Falco, A.

J.-H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Di Falco, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Do, V. K.

C. Caer, X. Le Roux, V. K. Do, D. Marris-Morini, N. Izard, L. Vivien, D. Gao, and E. Cassan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1298 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ebnali-Heidari, M.

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 344 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 344 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Eich, M.

J.-H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Freude, W.

Gao, D.

C. Caer, X. Le Roux, V. K. Do, D. Marris-Morini, N. Izard, L. Vivien, D. Gao, and E. Cassan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1298 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Grillet, C.

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 344 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ha, S.

Hamann, H. F.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, Nature 438, 65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hampe, J.

J.-H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

He, S.

Hugonin, J. P.

Hugonin, J.-P.

Izard, N.

C. Caer, X. Le Roux, V. K. Do, D. Marris-Morini, N. Izard, L. Vivien, D. Gao, and E. Cassan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1298 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jacome, L.

Jen, A. K.-Y.

X. Wang, C.-Y. Lin, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, Opt. Lett. 36, 882 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 093304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Johnson, S. G.

Kampfrath, T.

Khurgin, J. B.

Kivshar, Y. S.

Koos, C.

Krauss, T. F.

M. Spasenović, T. P. White, S. Ha, A. A. Sukhorukov, T. Kampfrath, Y. S. Kivshar, C. M. de Sterke, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, Opt. Lett. 36, 1170 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. O’Faolain, S. A. Schulz, D. M. Beggs, T. P. White, M. Spasenović, L. Kuipers, F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, S. Mazoyer, J. P. Hugonin, P. Lalanne, and T. F. Krauss, Opt. Express 18, 27627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 344 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Di Falco, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Hugonin, P. Lalanne, T. P. White, and T. F. Krauss, Opt. Lett. 32, 2638 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuipers, L.

Lai, W.

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 093304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne, P.

Le Roux, X.

C. Caer, X. Le Roux, V. K. Do, D. Marris-Morini, N. Izard, L. Vivien, D. Gao, and E. Cassan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1298 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. S.

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 093304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Leuthold, J.

Lin, C.-Y.

X. Wang, C.-Y. Lin, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, Opt. Lett. 36, 882 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 093304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

X. Wang, C.-Y. Lin, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, Opt. Lett. 36, 882 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 093304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Marris-Morini, D.

C. Caer, X. Le Roux, V. K. Do, D. Marris-Morini, N. Izard, L. Vivien, D. Gao, and E. Cassan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1298 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mazoyer, S.

McNab, S. J.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, Nature 438, 65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Melloni, A.

Monat, C.

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 344 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Morichetti, F.

Moss, D. J.

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 344 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O’Boyle, M.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, Nature 438, 65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O’Faolain, L.

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 344 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. O’Faolain, S. A. Schulz, D. M. Beggs, T. P. White, M. Spasenović, L. Kuipers, F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, S. Mazoyer, J. P. Hugonin, P. Lalanne, and T. F. Krauss, Opt. Express 18, 27627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Di Falco, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pelusi, M. D.

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 344 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, A.

J.-H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Poulton, C.

Pudo, D.

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 344 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, S. A.

Spasenovic, M.

Sukhorukov, A. A.

Tang, Y.

Vivien, L.

C. Caer, X. Le Roux, V. K. Do, D. Marris-Morini, N. Izard, L. Vivien, D. Gao, and E. Cassan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1298 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, Nature 438, 65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Waldow, M.

Wang, X.

X. Wang, C.-Y. Lin, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, Opt. Lett. 36, 882 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 093304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

White, T. P.

Wosinski, L.

Wülbern, J.-H.

J.-H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, N.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. Di Falco, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 093304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 344 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. Caer, X. Le Roux, V. K. Do, D. Marris-Morini, N. Izard, L. Vivien, D. Gao, and E. Cassan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1298 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Photon. (2)

T. Baba, Nat. Photon. 2, 465 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, Nat. Photon. 4, 535 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, Nature 438, 65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (4)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Scanning electron microscope (SEM) picture of an SPCW with a slot tailored into a comb. The comb and the photonic crystal have the same periodicity.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Band diagram of the engineered mode (green curve); (b) corresponding group index; (c) cross section of the ε|E|2 pattern at k=0.43; (d) view of the ε|E|2 pattern in the xy plane at k=0.43. The parameters of the structure are: W=1.25, W2=0.65, W3=0.45, Ws=0.35a, dx=0.5a, dy=0.4a, l=0.75, r1=0.28a, r2=0.38a.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Optical microscope image of the MZI and the SPCWs of various lengths. (b) Detailed view of the signal arm containing the SPCW and the reference arm. (c) Detailed view of the Y junction. (d) Cross section view of the comb in the SPCW.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Transmission diagram of the fabricated sample (blue line), corresponding group index extracted from the interference fringes (red line with dot markers), and calculated group index obtained using three-dimensional PWE calculation (green solid line). The dashed line represents the cladding light line. Inset: transmission at λ=1485nm for different photonic crystal lengths in another device, corresponding to ng=37, allowing the estimation of the SPCW optical losses at this group index.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Aeff=1aμ0ε0|celld3rRe{E(r)×H*(r)}ex|2n2d3rε(r)|E(r)|4,
ngsign=λmaxλmin2LΔλ+ngref,

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