Abstract

We report the generation of a 95 GHz carrier frequency by optical heterodyning of two wavelengths from adjacent channels from an arrayed waveguide grating-based multiwavelength laser. The extended cavity structure of the device provides low phase noise and narrow optical linewidth, further enhanced by the intracavity filter effect of the arrayed waveguide grating. We demonstrate that the generated RF beat note, at 95 GHz, has a 3dB linewidth of 250 kHz. To the best of our knowledge, this is the narrowest RF linewidth generated from a free-running dual-wavelength semiconductor laser. The device is realized as a photonic integrated circuit using active–passive integration technology, and fabricated on a multiproject wafer run, constituting a novel approach for a compact, low-cost dual-wavelength heterodyne source.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Nagatsuma, A. Hirata, N. Shimizu, S. Ho-Jin, and N. Kukutsu, in Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Applied Electromagnetics and Communications ICECom (IEEE, 2007), p. 1.
  2. L. A. Johansson and A. J. Seeds, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 511 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. D. Roh, T. S. Yeoh, R. B. Swint, A. E. Huber, C. Y. Woo, J. S. Hughes, and J. J. Coleman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1307 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Pozzi, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2563 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. P. Braun, G. Grosskopf, H. Heidrich, C. von Helmolt, R. Kaiser, K. Kruger, U. Kruger, D. Rohde, F. Schmidt, R. Stenzel, and D. Trommer, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 46, 320 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. van Dijk, A. Accard, A. Enard, A. O. Drisse, D. Make, and F. Lelarge, Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2011), p. 73.
  7. C. R. Doerr, M. Zirngibl, and C. H. Joyner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 962 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Stoehr, Proceedings of IEEE Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2010), pp. 7.
  9. K. Lawniczuk, R. Piramidowicz, P. Szczepanski, P. J. Williams, M. J. Wale, M. K. Smit, and X. J. M. Leijtens, in Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM) (IEEE, 2011).
  10. E. Rouvalis, M. Chtioui, M. Tran, F. Lelarge, F. van Dijk, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, G. Carpintero, and A. J. Seeds, Opt. Express 20, 9172 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2006 (1)

F. Pozzi, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2563 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2000 (1)

S. D. Roh, T. S. Yeoh, R. B. Swint, A. E. Huber, C. Y. Woo, J. S. Hughes, and J. J. Coleman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

R. P. Braun, G. Grosskopf, H. Heidrich, C. von Helmolt, R. Kaiser, K. Kruger, U. Kruger, D. Rohde, F. Schmidt, R. Stenzel, and D. Trommer, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 46, 320 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

C. R. Doerr, M. Zirngibl, and C. H. Joyner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 962 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Accard, A.

F. van Dijk, A. Accard, A. Enard, A. O. Drisse, D. Make, and F. Lelarge, Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2011), p. 73.

Braun, R. P.

R. P. Braun, G. Grosskopf, H. Heidrich, C. von Helmolt, R. Kaiser, K. Kruger, U. Kruger, D. Rohde, F. Schmidt, R. Stenzel, and D. Trommer, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 46, 320 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carpintero, G.

Chtioui, M.

Coleman, J. J.

S. D. Roh, T. S. Yeoh, R. B. Swint, A. E. Huber, C. Y. Woo, J. S. Hughes, and J. J. Coleman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

De La Rue, R. M.

F. Pozzi, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2563 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Doerr, C. R.

C. R. Doerr, M. Zirngibl, and C. H. Joyner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 962 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Drisse, A. O.

F. van Dijk, A. Accard, A. Enard, A. O. Drisse, D. Make, and F. Lelarge, Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2011), p. 73.

Enard, A.

F. van Dijk, A. Accard, A. Enard, A. O. Drisse, D. Make, and F. Lelarge, Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2011), p. 73.

Fice, M. J.

Grosskopf, G.

R. P. Braun, G. Grosskopf, H. Heidrich, C. von Helmolt, R. Kaiser, K. Kruger, U. Kruger, D. Rohde, F. Schmidt, R. Stenzel, and D. Trommer, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 46, 320 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Heidrich, H.

R. P. Braun, G. Grosskopf, H. Heidrich, C. von Helmolt, R. Kaiser, K. Kruger, U. Kruger, D. Rohde, F. Schmidt, R. Stenzel, and D. Trommer, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 46, 320 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hirata, A.

T. Nagatsuma, A. Hirata, N. Shimizu, S. Ho-Jin, and N. Kukutsu, in Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Applied Electromagnetics and Communications ICECom (IEEE, 2007), p. 1.

Ho-Jin, S.

T. Nagatsuma, A. Hirata, N. Shimizu, S. Ho-Jin, and N. Kukutsu, in Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Applied Electromagnetics and Communications ICECom (IEEE, 2007), p. 1.

Huber, A. E.

S. D. Roh, T. S. Yeoh, R. B. Swint, A. E. Huber, C. Y. Woo, J. S. Hughes, and J. J. Coleman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, J. S.

S. D. Roh, T. S. Yeoh, R. B. Swint, A. E. Huber, C. Y. Woo, J. S. Hughes, and J. J. Coleman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Johansson, L. A.

Joyner, C. H.

C. R. Doerr, M. Zirngibl, and C. H. Joyner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 962 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, R.

R. P. Braun, G. Grosskopf, H. Heidrich, C. von Helmolt, R. Kaiser, K. Kruger, U. Kruger, D. Rohde, F. Schmidt, R. Stenzel, and D. Trommer, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 46, 320 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kruger, K.

R. P. Braun, G. Grosskopf, H. Heidrich, C. von Helmolt, R. Kaiser, K. Kruger, U. Kruger, D. Rohde, F. Schmidt, R. Stenzel, and D. Trommer, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 46, 320 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kruger, U.

R. P. Braun, G. Grosskopf, H. Heidrich, C. von Helmolt, R. Kaiser, K. Kruger, U. Kruger, D. Rohde, F. Schmidt, R. Stenzel, and D. Trommer, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 46, 320 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kukutsu, N.

T. Nagatsuma, A. Hirata, N. Shimizu, S. Ho-Jin, and N. Kukutsu, in Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Applied Electromagnetics and Communications ICECom (IEEE, 2007), p. 1.

Lawniczuk, K.

K. Lawniczuk, R. Piramidowicz, P. Szczepanski, P. J. Williams, M. J. Wale, M. K. Smit, and X. J. M. Leijtens, in Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM) (IEEE, 2011).

Leijtens, X. J. M.

K. Lawniczuk, R. Piramidowicz, P. Szczepanski, P. J. Williams, M. J. Wale, M. K. Smit, and X. J. M. Leijtens, in Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM) (IEEE, 2011).

Lelarge, F.

E. Rouvalis, M. Chtioui, M. Tran, F. Lelarge, F. van Dijk, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, G. Carpintero, and A. J. Seeds, Opt. Express 20, 9172 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. van Dijk, A. Accard, A. Enard, A. O. Drisse, D. Make, and F. Lelarge, Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2011), p. 73.

Make, D.

F. van Dijk, A. Accard, A. Enard, A. O. Drisse, D. Make, and F. Lelarge, Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2011), p. 73.

Nagatsuma, T.

T. Nagatsuma, A. Hirata, N. Shimizu, S. Ho-Jin, and N. Kukutsu, in Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Applied Electromagnetics and Communications ICECom (IEEE, 2007), p. 1.

Piramidowicz, R.

K. Lawniczuk, R. Piramidowicz, P. Szczepanski, P. J. Williams, M. J. Wale, M. K. Smit, and X. J. M. Leijtens, in Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM) (IEEE, 2011).

Pozzi, F.

F. Pozzi, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2563 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Renaud, C. C.

Roh, S. D.

S. D. Roh, T. S. Yeoh, R. B. Swint, A. E. Huber, C. Y. Woo, J. S. Hughes, and J. J. Coleman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rohde, D.

R. P. Braun, G. Grosskopf, H. Heidrich, C. von Helmolt, R. Kaiser, K. Kruger, U. Kruger, D. Rohde, F. Schmidt, R. Stenzel, and D. Trommer, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 46, 320 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rouvalis, E.

Schmidt, F.

R. P. Braun, G. Grosskopf, H. Heidrich, C. von Helmolt, R. Kaiser, K. Kruger, U. Kruger, D. Rohde, F. Schmidt, R. Stenzel, and D. Trommer, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 46, 320 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Seeds, A. J.

Shimizu, N.

T. Nagatsuma, A. Hirata, N. Shimizu, S. Ho-Jin, and N. Kukutsu, in Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Applied Electromagnetics and Communications ICECom (IEEE, 2007), p. 1.

Smit, M. K.

K. Lawniczuk, R. Piramidowicz, P. Szczepanski, P. J. Williams, M. J. Wale, M. K. Smit, and X. J. M. Leijtens, in Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM) (IEEE, 2011).

Sorel, M.

F. Pozzi, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2563 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stenzel, R.

R. P. Braun, G. Grosskopf, H. Heidrich, C. von Helmolt, R. Kaiser, K. Kruger, U. Kruger, D. Rohde, F. Schmidt, R. Stenzel, and D. Trommer, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 46, 320 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stoehr, A.

A. Stoehr, Proceedings of IEEE Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2010), pp. 7.

Swint, R. B.

S. D. Roh, T. S. Yeoh, R. B. Swint, A. E. Huber, C. Y. Woo, J. S. Hughes, and J. J. Coleman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Szczepanski, P.

K. Lawniczuk, R. Piramidowicz, P. Szczepanski, P. J. Williams, M. J. Wale, M. K. Smit, and X. J. M. Leijtens, in Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM) (IEEE, 2011).

Tran, M.

Trommer, D.

R. P. Braun, G. Grosskopf, H. Heidrich, C. von Helmolt, R. Kaiser, K. Kruger, U. Kruger, D. Rohde, F. Schmidt, R. Stenzel, and D. Trommer, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 46, 320 (1998).
[CrossRef]

van Dijk, F.

E. Rouvalis, M. Chtioui, M. Tran, F. Lelarge, F. van Dijk, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, G. Carpintero, and A. J. Seeds, Opt. Express 20, 9172 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. van Dijk, A. Accard, A. Enard, A. O. Drisse, D. Make, and F. Lelarge, Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2011), p. 73.

von Helmolt, C.

R. P. Braun, G. Grosskopf, H. Heidrich, C. von Helmolt, R. Kaiser, K. Kruger, U. Kruger, D. Rohde, F. Schmidt, R. Stenzel, and D. Trommer, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 46, 320 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wale, M. J.

K. Lawniczuk, R. Piramidowicz, P. Szczepanski, P. J. Williams, M. J. Wale, M. K. Smit, and X. J. M. Leijtens, in Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM) (IEEE, 2011).

Williams, P. J.

K. Lawniczuk, R. Piramidowicz, P. Szczepanski, P. J. Williams, M. J. Wale, M. K. Smit, and X. J. M. Leijtens, in Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM) (IEEE, 2011).

Woo, C. Y.

S. D. Roh, T. S. Yeoh, R. B. Swint, A. E. Huber, C. Y. Woo, J. S. Hughes, and J. J. Coleman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yeoh, T. S.

S. D. Roh, T. S. Yeoh, R. B. Swint, A. E. Huber, C. Y. Woo, J. S. Hughes, and J. J. Coleman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zirngibl, M.

C. R. Doerr, M. Zirngibl, and C. H. Joyner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 962 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

S. D. Roh, T. S. Yeoh, R. B. Swint, A. E. Huber, C. Y. Woo, J. S. Hughes, and J. J. Coleman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Pozzi, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2563 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Doerr, M. Zirngibl, and C. H. Joyner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 962 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

R. P. Braun, G. Grosskopf, H. Heidrich, C. von Helmolt, R. Kaiser, K. Kruger, U. Kruger, D. Rohde, F. Schmidt, R. Stenzel, and D. Trommer, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 46, 320 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Other (4)

F. van Dijk, A. Accard, A. Enard, A. O. Drisse, D. Make, and F. Lelarge, Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2011), p. 73.

A. Stoehr, Proceedings of IEEE Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2010), pp. 7.

K. Lawniczuk, R. Piramidowicz, P. Szczepanski, P. J. Williams, M. J. Wale, M. K. Smit, and X. J. M. Leijtens, in Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM) (IEEE, 2011).

T. Nagatsuma, A. Hirata, N. Shimizu, S. Ho-Jin, and N. Kukutsu, in Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Applied Electromagnetics and Communications ICECom (IEEE, 2007), p. 1.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Monolithically integrated arrayed waveguide grating multiwavelength laser with 16 channels and output booster amplifier. Size of the chip is 4mm×4mm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Dual-wavelength emission with ICh4=20mA, ICh5=16mA, IBoost=32mA (red). The individual channel wavelengths are shown, channel 4 in blue and channel 5 in green (for all traces, span=2nm, resolution=0.01nm).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental arrangement for the generation of a wireless transmission carrier frequency at 95 GHz based on optical heterodyne of two channels from an AWGL.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The 95 GHz electrical beat note obtained from the AWGL with ICh4=20mA, ICh5=16mA, IBoost=32mA (green) with Lorentzian fit (black). Resolution bandwidth RBW=50kHz, video bandwidth VBW=300Hz, sweep time=5.4s.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Comparison of stability of the beat note obtained from an AWGL biased as in Fig. 4 (black) against two external cavity tunable lasers (gray). RBW=50kHz, VBW=300Hz, SWT=5.4s, Maxhold over 300 traces.

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