Abstract

A 4H-SiC based separate-absorption-multiplication (SAM) avalanche photodiode with a nanoscale multiplication region and a bulk absorption region is proposed and its optoelectronic performance is modeled. The results show that the avalanche breakdown voltage of the device is found to be dependent on the illumination condition. This is attributed to the existence of an illumination-dependent hole potential well in the upper center of the absorption region. Based on the illumination-dependence of avalanche breakdown voltage, a self-quenching and an ultrahigh UV/visible rejection ratio have been realized in this structure.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Yan, Y. Luo, J. H. Zhao, and G. H. Olsen, Electron Lett. 35, 929 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H.-Ying Lee, H.-Lin Huang, and C.-Ting Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 706 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M.-L. Lee, T. S. Mue, F. W. Huang, J. H. Yang, and J. K. Sheu, Opt. Express 19, 12658 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. X. Kong, C. Liu, W. Dong, X. Zhang, C. Tao, L. Shen, J. Zhou, Y. Fei, and S. Ruan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 123502 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Yan, D. Gargas, and P. Yang, Nature Photon. 3, 569 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Kind, H. Yan, B. Messer, M. Law, and P. Yang, Adv. Mater. 14, 158 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Han, G. Wu, H. Li, M. Wang, and H. Chen, Nanotechnology 21, 185708 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. O. Hayden, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, Nature Mater. 5, 352 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Razeghi and A. Rogalski, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 7433 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. X. Guo, A. L. Beck, Z. Huang, N. Duan, J. C. Campbell, D. Emerson, and J. J. Sumakeris, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53, 2259 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. X. Zhang, P. Kung, D. Walker, J. Piotrowski, A. Rogalski, A. Saxler, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2028 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Razeghi, Proc. IEEE 90, 1006 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Vert, S. Soloviev, and P. Sandvik, Mater. Sci. Forum 645–648, 1069 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. W. Loh, B. Ng, J. Ng, S. Soloviev, H.-Y. Cha, P. Sandvik, C. John-son, and J. David, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 55, 1984 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Li, H. Liu, Q. Zhou, D. Mcintosh, and J. C. Campbell, Opt. Express 18, 11713 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Cha and P. M. Sandvik, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 5423 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2011

H.-Ying Lee, H.-Lin Huang, and C.-Ting Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 706 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M.-L. Lee, T. S. Mue, F. W. Huang, J. H. Yang, and J. K. Sheu, Opt. Express 19, 12658 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

K. Li, H. Liu, Q. Zhou, D. Mcintosh, and J. C. Campbell, Opt. Express 18, 11713 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Han, G. Wu, H. Li, M. Wang, and H. Chen, Nanotechnology 21, 185708 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Vert, S. Soloviev, and P. Sandvik, Mater. Sci. Forum 645–648, 1069 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

X. Kong, C. Liu, W. Dong, X. Zhang, C. Tao, L. Shen, J. Zhou, Y. Fei, and S. Ruan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 123502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Yan, D. Gargas, and P. Yang, Nature Photon. 3, 569 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

H. Cha and P. M. Sandvik, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 5423 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Loh, B. Ng, J. Ng, S. Soloviev, H.-Y. Cha, P. Sandvik, C. John-son, and J. David, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 55, 1984 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

O. Hayden, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, Nature Mater. 5, 352 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Guo, A. Beck, Z. Huang, N. Duan, J. Campbell, D. Emerson, and J. Sumakeris, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53, 2259 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Guo, A. L. Beck, Z. Huang, N. Duan, J. C. Campbell, D. Emerson, and J. J. Sumakeris, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53, 2259 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2002

H. Kind, H. Yan, B. Messer, M. Law, and P. Yang, Adv. Mater. 14, 158 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Razeghi, Proc. IEEE 90, 1006 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

F. Yan, Y. Luo, J. H. Zhao, and G. H. Olsen, Electron Lett. 35, 929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. Razeghi and A. Rogalski, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 7433 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

X. Zhang, P. Kung, D. Walker, J. Piotrowski, A. Rogalski, A. Saxler, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2028 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, R.

O. Hayden, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, Nature Mater. 5, 352 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beck, A.

X. Guo, A. Beck, Z. Huang, N. Duan, J. Campbell, D. Emerson, and J. Sumakeris, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53, 2259 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beck, A. L.

X. Guo, A. L. Beck, Z. Huang, N. Duan, J. C. Campbell, D. Emerson, and J. J. Sumakeris, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53, 2259 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J.

X. Guo, A. Beck, Z. Huang, N. Duan, J. Campbell, D. Emerson, and J. Sumakeris, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53, 2259 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. C.

K. Li, H. Liu, Q. Zhou, D. Mcintosh, and J. C. Campbell, Opt. Express 18, 11713 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Guo, A. L. Beck, Z. Huang, N. Duan, J. C. Campbell, D. Emerson, and J. J. Sumakeris, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53, 2259 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cha, H.

H. Cha and P. M. Sandvik, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 5423 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cha, H.-Y.

W. Loh, B. Ng, J. Ng, S. Soloviev, H.-Y. Cha, P. Sandvik, C. John-son, and J. David, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 55, 1984 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

Y. Han, G. Wu, H. Li, M. Wang, and H. Chen, Nanotechnology 21, 185708 (2010).
[CrossRef]

David, J.

W. Loh, B. Ng, J. Ng, S. Soloviev, H.-Y. Cha, P. Sandvik, C. John-son, and J. David, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 55, 1984 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dong, W.

X. Kong, C. Liu, W. Dong, X. Zhang, C. Tao, L. Shen, J. Zhou, Y. Fei, and S. Ruan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 123502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Duan, N.

X. Guo, A. L. Beck, Z. Huang, N. Duan, J. C. Campbell, D. Emerson, and J. J. Sumakeris, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53, 2259 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Guo, A. Beck, Z. Huang, N. Duan, J. Campbell, D. Emerson, and J. Sumakeris, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53, 2259 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Emerson, D.

X. Guo, A. Beck, Z. Huang, N. Duan, J. Campbell, D. Emerson, and J. Sumakeris, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53, 2259 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Guo, A. L. Beck, Z. Huang, N. Duan, J. C. Campbell, D. Emerson, and J. J. Sumakeris, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53, 2259 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fei, Y.

X. Kong, C. Liu, W. Dong, X. Zhang, C. Tao, L. Shen, J. Zhou, Y. Fei, and S. Ruan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 123502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gargas, D.

R. Yan, D. Gargas, and P. Yang, Nature Photon. 3, 569 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guo, X.

X. Guo, A. L. Beck, Z. Huang, N. Duan, J. C. Campbell, D. Emerson, and J. J. Sumakeris, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53, 2259 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Guo, A. Beck, Z. Huang, N. Duan, J. Campbell, D. Emerson, and J. Sumakeris, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53, 2259 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y.

Y. Han, G. Wu, H. Li, M. Wang, and H. Chen, Nanotechnology 21, 185708 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hayden, O.

O. Hayden, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, Nature Mater. 5, 352 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, F. W.

Huang, H.-Lin

H.-Ying Lee, H.-Lin Huang, and C.-Ting Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 706 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z.

X. Guo, A. Beck, Z. Huang, N. Duan, J. Campbell, D. Emerson, and J. Sumakeris, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53, 2259 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Guo, A. L. Beck, Z. Huang, N. Duan, J. C. Campbell, D. Emerson, and J. J. Sumakeris, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53, 2259 (2006).
[CrossRef]

John-son, C.

W. Loh, B. Ng, J. Ng, S. Soloviev, H.-Y. Cha, P. Sandvik, C. John-son, and J. David, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 55, 1984 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kind, H.

H. Kind, H. Yan, B. Messer, M. Law, and P. Yang, Adv. Mater. 14, 158 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kong, X.

X. Kong, C. Liu, W. Dong, X. Zhang, C. Tao, L. Shen, J. Zhou, Y. Fei, and S. Ruan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 123502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kung, P.

X. Zhang, P. Kung, D. Walker, J. Piotrowski, A. Rogalski, A. Saxler, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2028 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Law, M.

H. Kind, H. Yan, B. Messer, M. Law, and P. Yang, Adv. Mater. 14, 158 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-Ting

H.-Ying Lee, H.-Lin Huang, and C.-Ting Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 706 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.-Ying

H.-Ying Lee, H.-Lin Huang, and C.-Ting Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 706 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.-L.

Li, H.

Y. Han, G. Wu, H. Li, M. Wang, and H. Chen, Nanotechnology 21, 185708 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, K.

Lieber, C. M.

O. Hayden, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, Nature Mater. 5, 352 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

X. Kong, C. Liu, W. Dong, X. Zhang, C. Tao, L. Shen, J. Zhou, Y. Fei, and S. Ruan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 123502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

Loh, W.

W. Loh, B. Ng, J. Ng, S. Soloviev, H.-Y. Cha, P. Sandvik, C. John-son, and J. David, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 55, 1984 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Y.

F. Yan, Y. Luo, J. H. Zhao, and G. H. Olsen, Electron Lett. 35, 929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mcintosh, D.

Messer, B.

H. Kind, H. Yan, B. Messer, M. Law, and P. Yang, Adv. Mater. 14, 158 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mue, T. S.

Ng, B.

W. Loh, B. Ng, J. Ng, S. Soloviev, H.-Y. Cha, P. Sandvik, C. John-son, and J. David, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 55, 1984 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ng, J.

W. Loh, B. Ng, J. Ng, S. Soloviev, H.-Y. Cha, P. Sandvik, C. John-son, and J. David, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 55, 1984 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Olsen, G. H.

F. Yan, Y. Luo, J. H. Zhao, and G. H. Olsen, Electron Lett. 35, 929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Piotrowski, J.

X. Zhang, P. Kung, D. Walker, J. Piotrowski, A. Rogalski, A. Saxler, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2028 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Razeghi, M.

M. Razeghi, Proc. IEEE 90, 1006 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Razeghi and A. Rogalski, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 7433 (1996).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, P. Kung, D. Walker, J. Piotrowski, A. Rogalski, A. Saxler, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2028 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rogalski, A.

M. Razeghi and A. Rogalski, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 7433 (1996).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, P. Kung, D. Walker, J. Piotrowski, A. Rogalski, A. Saxler, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2028 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ruan, S.

X. Kong, C. Liu, W. Dong, X. Zhang, C. Tao, L. Shen, J. Zhou, Y. Fei, and S. Ruan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 123502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sandvik, P.

A. Vert, S. Soloviev, and P. Sandvik, Mater. Sci. Forum 645–648, 1069 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Loh, B. Ng, J. Ng, S. Soloviev, H.-Y. Cha, P. Sandvik, C. John-son, and J. David, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 55, 1984 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sandvik, P. M.

H. Cha and P. M. Sandvik, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 5423 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Saxler, A.

X. Zhang, P. Kung, D. Walker, J. Piotrowski, A. Rogalski, A. Saxler, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2028 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shen, L.

X. Kong, C. Liu, W. Dong, X. Zhang, C. Tao, L. Shen, J. Zhou, Y. Fei, and S. Ruan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 123502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J. K.

Soloviev, S.

A. Vert, S. Soloviev, and P. Sandvik, Mater. Sci. Forum 645–648, 1069 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Loh, B. Ng, J. Ng, S. Soloviev, H.-Y. Cha, P. Sandvik, C. John-son, and J. David, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 55, 1984 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sumakeris, J.

X. Guo, A. Beck, Z. Huang, N. Duan, J. Campbell, D. Emerson, and J. Sumakeris, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53, 2259 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sumakeris, J. J.

X. Guo, A. L. Beck, Z. Huang, N. Duan, J. C. Campbell, D. Emerson, and J. J. Sumakeris, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53, 2259 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tao, C.

X. Kong, C. Liu, W. Dong, X. Zhang, C. Tao, L. Shen, J. Zhou, Y. Fei, and S. Ruan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 123502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vert, A.

A. Vert, S. Soloviev, and P. Sandvik, Mater. Sci. Forum 645–648, 1069 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Walker, D.

X. Zhang, P. Kung, D. Walker, J. Piotrowski, A. Rogalski, A. Saxler, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2028 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

Y. Han, G. Wu, H. Li, M. Wang, and H. Chen, Nanotechnology 21, 185708 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, G.

Y. Han, G. Wu, H. Li, M. Wang, and H. Chen, Nanotechnology 21, 185708 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yan, F.

F. Yan, Y. Luo, J. H. Zhao, and G. H. Olsen, Electron Lett. 35, 929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yan, H.

H. Kind, H. Yan, B. Messer, M. Law, and P. Yang, Adv. Mater. 14, 158 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yan, R.

R. Yan, D. Gargas, and P. Yang, Nature Photon. 3, 569 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. H.

Yang, P.

R. Yan, D. Gargas, and P. Yang, Nature Photon. 3, 569 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Kind, H. Yan, B. Messer, M. Law, and P. Yang, Adv. Mater. 14, 158 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

X. Kong, C. Liu, W. Dong, X. Zhang, C. Tao, L. Shen, J. Zhou, Y. Fei, and S. Ruan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 123502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, P. Kung, D. Walker, J. Piotrowski, A. Rogalski, A. Saxler, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2028 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J. H.

F. Yan, Y. Luo, J. H. Zhao, and G. H. Olsen, Electron Lett. 35, 929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

X. Kong, C. Liu, W. Dong, X. Zhang, C. Tao, L. Shen, J. Zhou, Y. Fei, and S. Ruan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 123502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Q.

Adv. Mater.

H. Kind, H. Yan, B. Messer, M. Law, and P. Yang, Adv. Mater. 14, 158 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

X. Kong, C. Liu, W. Dong, X. Zhang, C. Tao, L. Shen, J. Zhou, Y. Fei, and S. Ruan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 123502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, P. Kung, D. Walker, J. Piotrowski, A. Rogalski, A. Saxler, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2028 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Electron Lett.

F. Yan, Y. Luo, J. H. Zhao, and G. H. Olsen, Electron Lett. 35, 929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

H.-Ying Lee, H.-Lin Huang, and C.-Ting Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 706 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices

X. Guo, A. Beck, Z. Huang, N. Duan, J. Campbell, D. Emerson, and J. Sumakeris, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53, 2259 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Loh, B. Ng, J. Ng, S. Soloviev, H.-Y. Cha, P. Sandvik, C. John-son, and J. David, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 55, 1984 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Guo, A. L. Beck, Z. Huang, N. Duan, J. C. Campbell, D. Emerson, and J. J. Sumakeris, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53, 2259 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

M. Razeghi and A. Rogalski, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 7433 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

H. Cha and P. M. Sandvik, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 5423 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Forum

A. Vert, S. Soloviev, and P. Sandvik, Mater. Sci. Forum 645–648, 1069 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology

Y. Han, G. Wu, H. Li, M. Wang, and H. Chen, Nanotechnology 21, 185708 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature Mater.

O. Hayden, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, Nature Mater. 5, 352 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature Photon.

R. Yan, D. Gargas, and P. Yang, Nature Photon. 3, 569 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Proc. IEEE

M. Razeghi, Proc. IEEE 90, 1006 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Typical structure of the 4H-SiC NAPD, (b) the valence band contour distribution of the 4H-SiC NAPD without illumination and bias, and (c) the valence band diagrams of the 4H-SiC NAPD at the center of the device as a function of the distance from the top of P+ capping layer, in which the operation voltage is 0 V and P is 1×104W/cm2.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Dependence of 4H-SiC NAPD’s breakdown voltage (Vbr) on the wavelength (λ) where the illumination power density is 1×104W/cm2, and the dependence of Vbr on incident optical power at 280 nm (Inset).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Reverse I-V characteristics of the 4H-SiC NAPD with and without illumination. The wavelength and power density of the illumination are 280 nm and 1×104W/cm2, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Normalized spectral responsivity of the 4H-SiC NAPD as a function of wavelength where the device is illuminated by a range of optical power densities and a comparison with a conventional bulk 4H-SiC APD.

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