Abstract

We propose an approach to efficiently generate and multiplex optical orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes in a fiber with a ring refractive index profile by using multiple coherent inputs from a Gaussian mode. By controlling the phase relationship of the multiple inputs, one can selectively generate OAM modes of different states l. By controlling both the amplitude and phase of the multiple inputs, multiple OAM modes can be generated simultaneously without additional loss coming from multiplexing. We show, by simulation, the generation of OAM modes (OAM state |l|<3) with mode purity greater than 99%. The power loss of generating and multiplexing seven modes is about 35%. A transmitter for an OAM-based mode-division multiplexing system is proposed based on the discrete Fourier transform between the data carried by the multiple inputs and the data carried by the OAM modes. The experimental implementation of the proposed approach could be achieved by integrating ring fiber, multicore fiber, and photonic integrated circuit technology.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nature Photon. 6, 488 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 521 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Arlt, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1231 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. G. Abramochkin and V. G. Volostnikov, Phys. Uspekhi 47, 1177 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Yan, J. Wang, L. Zhang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, B. Shamee, A. E. Willner, K. Birnbaum, and S. Dolinar, Opt. Lett. 36, 4269 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Yan, L. Zhang, J. Wang, J. Yang, I. Fazal, N. Ahmed, A. Willner, and S. Dolinar, Opt. Lett. 37, 3294 (2012).
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    [CrossRef]
  11. N. K. Fontaine, C. R. Doerr, M. A. Mestre, R. Ryf, P. Winzer, L. Buhl, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PDP5B.
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    [CrossRef]

2012 (4)

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2007 (1)

B. Thidé, H. Then, J. Sjöholm, K. Palmer, J. Bergman, T. D. Carozzi, Ya. N. Istomin, N. H. Ibragimov, and R. Khamitova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 087701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

E. G. Abramochkin and V. G. Volostnikov, Phys. Uspekhi 47, 1177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. Arlt, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1231 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Abramochkin, E. G.

E. G. Abramochkin and V. G. Volostnikov, Phys. Uspekhi 47, 1177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ahmed, N.

Allen, L.

J. Arlt, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1231 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Arlt, J.

J. Arlt, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1231 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, J.

B. Thidé, H. Then, J. Sjöholm, K. Palmer, J. Bergman, T. D. Carozzi, Ya. N. Istomin, N. H. Ibragimov, and R. Khamitova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 087701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Birnbaum, K.

Bolle, C.

Buhl, L.

N. K. Fontaine, C. R. Doerr, M. A. Mestre, R. Ryf, P. Winzer, L. Buhl, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PDP5B.

Burrows, E. C.

Cai, X.

Carozzi, T. D.

B. Thidé, H. Then, J. Sjöholm, K. Palmer, J. Bergman, T. D. Carozzi, Ya. N. Istomin, N. H. Ibragimov, and R. Khamitova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 087701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dholakia, K.

J. Arlt, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1231 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dimarcello, F. V.

Djordjevic, S. S.

Doerr, C. R.

N. K. Fontaine, C. R. Doerr, M. A. Mestre, R. Ryf, P. Winzer, L. Buhl, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PDP5B.

Dolinar, S.

Esmaeelpour, M.

Essiambre, R.-J.

Fazal, I.

Fazal, I. M.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nature Photon. 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yan, J. Wang, L. Zhang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, B. Shamee, A. E. Willner, K. Birnbaum, and S. Dolinar, Opt. Lett. 36, 4269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fini, J. M.

Fishteyn, M.

Fontaine, N. K.

T. Su, R. P. Scott, S. S. Djordjevic, N. K. Fontaine, D. J. Geisler, X. Cai, and S. J. B. Yoo, Opt. Express 20, 9396 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Fontaine, C. R. Doerr, M. A. Mestre, R. Ryf, P. Winzer, L. Buhl, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PDP5B.

Geisler, D. J.

Gnauck, A. H.

Huang, H.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nature Photon. 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ibragimov, N. H.

B. Thidé, H. Then, J. Sjöholm, K. Palmer, J. Bergman, T. D. Carozzi, Ya. N. Istomin, N. H. Ibragimov, and R. Khamitova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 087701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Istomin, Ya. N.

B. Thidé, H. Then, J. Sjöholm, K. Palmer, J. Bergman, T. D. Carozzi, Ya. N. Istomin, N. H. Ibragimov, and R. Khamitova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 087701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.

N. K. Fontaine, C. R. Doerr, M. A. Mestre, R. Ryf, P. Winzer, L. Buhl, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PDP5B.

Khamitova, R.

B. Thidé, H. Then, J. Sjöholm, K. Palmer, J. Bergman, T. D. Carozzi, Ya. N. Istomin, N. H. Ibragimov, and R. Khamitova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 087701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kristensen, P.

Lingle, R.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 521 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Fontaine, C. R. Doerr, M. A. Mestre, R. Ryf, P. Winzer, L. Buhl, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PDP5B.

McCurdy, A. H.

Mestre, M. A.

N. K. Fontaine, C. R. Doerr, M. A. Mestre, R. Ryf, P. Winzer, L. Buhl, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PDP5B.

Monberg, E. M.

Mumtaz, S.

Padgett, M.

J. Arlt, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1231 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, K.

B. Thidé, H. Then, J. Sjöholm, K. Palmer, J. Bergman, T. D. Carozzi, Ya. N. Istomin, N. H. Ibragimov, and R. Khamitova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 087701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peckham, D. W.

Ramachandran, S.

Randel, S.

Ren, Y.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nature Photon. 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ryf, R.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 521 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Fontaine, C. R. Doerr, M. A. Mestre, R. Ryf, P. Winzer, L. Buhl, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PDP5B.

Scott, R. P.

Shamee, B.

Sierra, A.

Sjöholm, J.

B. Thidé, H. Then, J. Sjöholm, K. Palmer, J. Bergman, T. D. Carozzi, Ya. N. Istomin, N. H. Ibragimov, and R. Khamitova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 087701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spreeuw, R. J. C.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Su, T.

Sun, Y.

N. K. Fontaine, C. R. Doerr, M. A. Mestre, R. Ryf, P. Winzer, L. Buhl, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PDP5B.

Taunay, T. F.

Then, H.

B. Thidé, H. Then, J. Sjöholm, K. Palmer, J. Bergman, T. D. Carozzi, Ya. N. Istomin, N. H. Ibragimov, and R. Khamitova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 087701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thidé, B.

B. Thidé, H. Then, J. Sjöholm, K. Palmer, J. Bergman, T. D. Carozzi, Ya. N. Istomin, N. H. Ibragimov, and R. Khamitova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 087701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tur, M.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nature Photon. 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Volostnikov, V. G.

E. G. Abramochkin and V. G. Volostnikov, Phys. Uspekhi 47, 1177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Willner, A.

Willner, A. E.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nature Photon. 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yan, J. Wang, L. Zhang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, B. Shamee, A. E. Willner, K. Birnbaum, and S. Dolinar, Opt. Lett. 36, 4269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Winzer, P.

N. K. Fontaine, C. R. Doerr, M. A. Mestre, R. Ryf, P. Winzer, L. Buhl, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PDP5B.

Winzer, P. J.

Woerdman, J. P.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yan, M. F.

Yan, Y.

Yang, J.

Yang, J. Y.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nature Photon. 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yan, J. Wang, L. Zhang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, B. Shamee, A. E. Willner, K. Birnbaum, and S. Dolinar, Opt. Lett. 36, 4269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S. J. B.

Yue, Y.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nature Photon. 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Zhu, B.

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

J. Arlt, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1231 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nature Photon. (1)

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nature Photon. 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

B. Thidé, H. Then, J. Sjöholm, K. Palmer, J. Bergman, T. D. Carozzi, Ya. N. Istomin, N. H. Ibragimov, and R. Khamitova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 087701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Uspekhi (1)

E. G. Abramochkin and V. G. Volostnikov, Phys. Uspekhi 47, 1177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

N. K. Fontaine, C. R. Doerr, M. A. Mestre, R. Ryf, P. Winzer, L. Buhl, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PDP5B.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Generation of OAM modes of charge number l in a ring fiber with N coherent Gaussian inputs. (b) The refractive index of the ring fiber, which is designed to support OAMl,1 modes with l=33.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Left: intensity of eight Gaussian input modes. Right: the output intensity and phase patterns of the generated OAMl,1 modes with l=03 and LP4,1 mode. (b) The normalized optical power of the generated OAM modes with l=03 and LP4,1 mode in a 2 cm long ring fiber. (c) Comparison of the mode purity and crosstalk of the generated OAM modes in a ring fiber or a multimode fiber with a step refractive index.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Power weight of the OAM state l at (a) ring fiber input z=0cm and (b) output z=2cm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Dependence of the generated OAM mode purity and crosstalk on the (a) offset between the ring fiber and the inputs and (b) phase error of the inputs.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

System diagram of an OAM mode-based MDM transmitter using multiple coherent inputs that generate and multiplex multiple OAM modes, in which each one carries independent data Dl. D: the transmitted independent data channel from different OAM modes; M: modulator; d: data from each coherent input.

Equations (2)

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Cl,p=F(x,y)ψl,p*(x,y)dxdy,
dm(t)=l=N/2+1N/2exp(i2πlm/N)Dl(t),

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