Abstract

We present a defect-free lithography method for printing periodic features with nanoscale resolution using coherent extreme ultraviolet light. This technique is based on the self-imaging effect known as the Talbot effect, which is produced when coherent light is diffracted by a periodic mask. We present a numerical simulation and an experimental verification of the method with a compact extreme ultraviolet laser. Furthermore, we explore the extent of defect tolerance by testing masks with different defect layouts. The experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical calculations.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Zanke, M. Qi, and H. I. Smith, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B  22, 3352 (2004).
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  3. A. Isoyan, F. Jiang, Y. C. Cheng, F. Cerrina, P. Wachulak, L. Urbanski, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, and M. C. Marconi, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27, 2931 (2009).
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  6. B. R. Benware, C. D. Macchietto, C. H. Moreno, and J. J. Rocca, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5804 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Urbanski, M. C. Marconi, L. M. Meng, M. Berrill, O. Guilbaud, A. Klisnick, and J. J. Rocca, Phys. Rev. A 85, 033837 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Liu, M. Seminario, F. Tomasel, C. Chang, J. J. Rocca, and D. Attwood, Phys. Rev. A 63, 1 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. D. Macchietto, B. R. Benware, and J. J. Rocca, Opt. Lett. 24, 1115 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Alessi, D. H. Martz, Y. Wang, M. Berrill, B. M. Luther, and J. J. Rocca, Opt. Lett. 35, 414 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

L. Urbanski, M. C. Marconi, L. M. Meng, M. Berrill, O. Guilbaud, A. Klisnick, and J. J. Rocca, Phys. Rev. A 85, 033837 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

A. Isoyan, F. Jiang, Y. C. Cheng, F. Cerrina, P. Wachulak, L. Urbanski, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, and M. C. Marconi, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27, 2931 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

C. Zanke, M. Qi, and H. I. Smith, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B  22, 3352 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Y. Liu, M. Seminario, F. Tomasel, C. Chang, J. J. Rocca, and D. Attwood, Phys. Rev. A 63, 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

B. R. Benware, C. D. Macchietto, C. H. Moreno, and J. J. Rocca, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5804 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

1836 (1)

H. Talbot, Philos. Mag. 9, 401 (1836).
[CrossRef]

Alessi, D.

Attwood, D.

Y. Liu, M. Seminario, F. Tomasel, C. Chang, J. J. Rocca, and D. Attwood, Phys. Rev. A 63, 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Benware, B. R.

C. D. Macchietto, B. R. Benware, and J. J. Rocca, Opt. Lett. 24, 1115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Benware, C. D. Macchietto, C. H. Moreno, and J. J. Rocca, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5804 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Berrill, M.

L. Urbanski, M. C. Marconi, L. M. Meng, M. Berrill, O. Guilbaud, A. Klisnick, and J. J. Rocca, Phys. Rev. A 85, 033837 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Alessi, D. H. Martz, Y. Wang, M. Berrill, B. M. Luther, and J. J. Rocca, Opt. Lett. 35, 414 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cerrina, F.

A. Isoyan, F. Jiang, Y. C. Cheng, F. Cerrina, P. Wachulak, L. Urbanski, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, and M. C. Marconi, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27, 2931 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.

Y. Liu, M. Seminario, F. Tomasel, C. Chang, J. J. Rocca, and D. Attwood, Phys. Rev. A 63, 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y. C.

A. Isoyan, F. Jiang, Y. C. Cheng, F. Cerrina, P. Wachulak, L. Urbanski, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, and M. C. Marconi, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27, 2931 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dammann, H.

Groh, G.

Guilbaud, O.

L. Urbanski, M. C. Marconi, L. M. Meng, M. Berrill, O. Guilbaud, A. Klisnick, and J. J. Rocca, Phys. Rev. A 85, 033837 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Isoyan, A.

A. Isoyan, F. Jiang, Y. C. Cheng, F. Cerrina, P. Wachulak, L. Urbanski, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, and M. C. Marconi, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27, 2931 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jahns, J.

Jiang, F.

A. Isoyan, F. Jiang, Y. C. Cheng, F. Cerrina, P. Wachulak, L. Urbanski, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, and M. C. Marconi, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27, 2931 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Klisnick, A.

L. Urbanski, M. C. Marconi, L. M. Meng, M. Berrill, O. Guilbaud, A. Klisnick, and J. J. Rocca, Phys. Rev. A 85, 033837 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Knuppertz, H.

Kock, M.

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, M. Seminario, F. Tomasel, C. Chang, J. J. Rocca, and D. Attwood, Phys. Rev. A 63, 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lohmann, A. W.

Luther, B. M.

Macchietto, C. D.

C. D. Macchietto, B. R. Benware, and J. J. Rocca, Opt. Lett. 24, 1115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Benware, C. D. Macchietto, C. H. Moreno, and J. J. Rocca, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5804 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marconi, M. C.

L. Urbanski, M. C. Marconi, L. M. Meng, M. Berrill, O. Guilbaud, A. Klisnick, and J. J. Rocca, Phys. Rev. A 85, 033837 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Isoyan, F. Jiang, Y. C. Cheng, F. Cerrina, P. Wachulak, L. Urbanski, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, and M. C. Marconi, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27, 2931 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Martz, D. H.

Meng, L. M.

L. Urbanski, M. C. Marconi, L. M. Meng, M. Berrill, O. Guilbaud, A. Klisnick, and J. J. Rocca, Phys. Rev. A 85, 033837 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Menoni, C. S.

A. Isoyan, F. Jiang, Y. C. Cheng, F. Cerrina, P. Wachulak, L. Urbanski, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, and M. C. Marconi, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27, 2931 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, C. H.

B. R. Benware, C. D. Macchietto, C. H. Moreno, and J. J. Rocca, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5804 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Qi, M.

C. Zanke, M. Qi, and H. I. Smith, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B  22, 3352 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rocca, J. J.

L. Urbanski, M. C. Marconi, L. M. Meng, M. Berrill, O. Guilbaud, A. Klisnick, and J. J. Rocca, Phys. Rev. A 85, 033837 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Alessi, D. H. Martz, Y. Wang, M. Berrill, B. M. Luther, and J. J. Rocca, Opt. Lett. 35, 414 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Isoyan, F. Jiang, Y. C. Cheng, F. Cerrina, P. Wachulak, L. Urbanski, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, and M. C. Marconi, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27, 2931 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, M. Seminario, F. Tomasel, C. Chang, J. J. Rocca, and D. Attwood, Phys. Rev. A 63, 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Macchietto, B. R. Benware, and J. J. Rocca, Opt. Lett. 24, 1115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Benware, C. D. Macchietto, C. H. Moreno, and J. J. Rocca, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5804 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Seminario, M.

Y. Liu, M. Seminario, F. Tomasel, C. Chang, J. J. Rocca, and D. Attwood, Phys. Rev. A 63, 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Smith, H. I.

C. Zanke, M. Qi, and H. I. Smith, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B  22, 3352 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Talbot, H.

H. Talbot, Philos. Mag. 9, 401 (1836).
[CrossRef]

Tomasel, F.

Y. Liu, M. Seminario, F. Tomasel, C. Chang, J. J. Rocca, and D. Attwood, Phys. Rev. A 63, 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Urbanski, L.

L. Urbanski, M. C. Marconi, L. M. Meng, M. Berrill, O. Guilbaud, A. Klisnick, and J. J. Rocca, Phys. Rev. A 85, 033837 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Isoyan, F. Jiang, Y. C. Cheng, F. Cerrina, P. Wachulak, L. Urbanski, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, and M. C. Marconi, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27, 2931 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wachulak, P.

A. Isoyan, F. Jiang, Y. C. Cheng, F. Cerrina, P. Wachulak, L. Urbanski, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, and M. C. Marconi, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27, 2931 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Zanke, C.

C. Zanke, M. Qi, and H. I. Smith, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B  22, 3352 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (2)

C. Zanke, M. Qi, and H. I. Smith, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B  22, 3352 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Isoyan, F. Jiang, Y. C. Cheng, F. Cerrina, P. Wachulak, L. Urbanski, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, and M. C. Marconi, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27, 2931 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Philos. Mag. (1)

H. Talbot, Philos. Mag. 9, 401 (1836).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

L. Urbanski, M. C. Marconi, L. M. Meng, M. Berrill, O. Guilbaud, A. Klisnick, and J. J. Rocca, Phys. Rev. A 85, 033837 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, M. Seminario, F. Tomasel, C. Chang, J. J. Rocca, and D. Attwood, Phys. Rev. A 63, 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

B. R. Benware, C. D. Macchietto, C. H. Moreno, and J. J. Rocca, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5804 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup. The EUV laser illuminates the Talbot mask that renders self-images at the Talbot planes where the sample is located.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Numerical simulation of the defect-tolerance concept of the GTI for a mask composed of 10,000 cells. (a) Mask with a defect. (b) Intensity distribution at the Talbot plane. The reconstruction does not show the defect indicated in the dashed lined circle.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Electron microscope scans of the two Talbot masks used in the experiment with on-purpose fabricated defects. (a) Defect equivalent to a single unit cell. (b) Defect equivalent to an entire row of cells. (c) Corresponding AFM scans of the reconstruction at first Talbot plane corresponding to a mask with a single cell defect. (d) A mask with entire row of defects.

Equations (2)

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UTOT(x,z)=D(x,z)+A0+m0Amexp[-2iπ(mν0x-m2zzT)]=D(x,z)+U(x,z+NzT),
Δλ21+2np2λW,

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