Abstract

A wavefront sensor is used as a direct observation tool to image the Gouy phase shift in photonic nanojets created by micrometer-sized dielectric spheres. The amplitude and phase distributions of light are found in good agreement with a rigorous electromagnetic computation. Interestingly the observed phase shift when travelling through the photonic jet is a combination of the awaited π Gouy shift and a phase shift induced by the bead refraction. Such direct spatial phase shift observation using wavefront sensors would find applications in microscopy, diffractive optics, optical trapping, and point spread function engineering.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  21. As checked with ray tracing software.

2011 (3)

L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, Nat. Photon. 5, 83 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M.-S. Kim, T. Scharf, S. Muhlig, C. Rockstuhl, and H. P. Herzig, Opt. Express 19, 10206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Kim, T. Scharf, S. Muhlig, C. Rockstuhl, and H. P. Herzig, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 191114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

T. D. Visser and E. Wolf, Opt. Commun. 283, 3371 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

2008 (3)

2007 (2)

H. C. Kandpal, S. Raman, and R. Mehrotra, Opt. Lasers Eng. 45, 249 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, Z. Zeng, R. Li, and Z. Xu, Chin. Opt. Lett. 5, S183 (2007).

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

A. B. Ruffin, J. V. Rudd, J. F. Whitaker, S. Feng, and H. G. Winful, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3410 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

1984 (1)

M. V. Berry, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. 392, 45 (1984).

1980 (1)

1890 (1)

L. G. Gouy, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 110, 1251 (1890).

Backman, V.

A. Heifetz, S. C. Kong, A. V. Sahakian, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 6, 1979 (2009).

Berry, M. V.

M. V. Berry, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. 392, 45 (1984).

Bon, P.

Bonod, N.

Bonod, Nicolas

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, and J. X. Cheng, Principles of Optics(Pergamon, 1980).

Boyd, R. W.

Cheng, J. X.

M. Born, E. Wolf, and J. X. Cheng, Principles of Optics(Pergamon, 1980).

Devilez, A.

Feng, S.

S. Feng and H. G. Winful, Opt. Lett. 26, 485 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Ruffin, J. V. Rudd, J. F. Whitaker, S. Feng, and H. G. Winful, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3410 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ferrand, P.

Gachet, D.

Gérard, D.

Gouy, L. G.

L. G. Gouy, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 110, 1251 (1890).

Heifetz, A.

A. Heifetz, S. C. Kong, A. V. Sahakian, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 6, 1979 (2009).

Herzig, H. P.

M. S. Kim, T. Scharf, S. Muhlig, C. Rockstuhl, and H. P. Herzig, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 191114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M.-S. Kim, T. Scharf, S. Muhlig, C. Rockstuhl, and H. P. Herzig, Opt. Express 19, 10206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kandpal, H. C.

H. C. Kandpal, S. Raman, and R. Mehrotra, Opt. Lasers Eng. 45, 249 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. S.

M. S. Kim, T. Scharf, S. Muhlig, C. Rockstuhl, and H. P. Herzig, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 191114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.-S.

Kong, S. C.

A. Heifetz, S. C. Kong, A. V. Sahakian, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 6, 1979 (2009).

Li, R.

Maucort, G.

Mehrotra, R.

H. C. Kandpal, S. Raman, and R. Mehrotra, Opt. Lasers Eng. 45, 249 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Monneret, S.

Muhlig, S.

M.-S. Kim, T. Scharf, S. Muhlig, C. Rockstuhl, and H. P. Herzig, Opt. Express 19, 10206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Kim, T. Scharf, S. Muhlig, C. Rockstuhl, and H. P. Herzig, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 191114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, Nat. Photon. 5, 83 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pianta, M.

Popov, E.

Primot, J.

Raman, S.

H. C. Kandpal, S. Raman, and R. Mehrotra, Opt. Lasers Eng. 45, 249 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rigneault, H.

Rockstuhl, C.

M.-S. Kim, T. Scharf, S. Muhlig, C. Rockstuhl, and H. P. Herzig, Opt. Express 19, 10206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Kim, T. Scharf, S. Muhlig, C. Rockstuhl, and H. P. Herzig, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 191114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rudd, J. V.

A. B. Ruffin, J. V. Rudd, J. F. Whitaker, S. Feng, and H. G. Winful, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3410 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ruffin, A. B.

A. B. Ruffin, J. V. Rudd, J. F. Whitaker, S. Feng, and H. G. Winful, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3410 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sahakian, A. V.

A. Heifetz, S. C. Kong, A. V. Sahakian, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 6, 1979 (2009).

Scharf, T.

M. S. Kim, T. Scharf, S. Muhlig, C. Rockstuhl, and H. P. Herzig, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 191114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M.-S. Kim, T. Scharf, S. Muhlig, C. Rockstuhl, and H. P. Herzig, Opt. Express 19, 10206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sogno, L.

Stout, B.

Subbarao, D.

Taflove, A.

A. Heifetz, S. C. Kong, A. V. Sahakian, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 6, 1979 (2009).

van Hulst, N.

L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, Nat. Photon. 5, 83 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Visser, T. D.

T. D. Visser and E. Wolf, Opt. Commun. 283, 3371 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Wattellier, B.

Wenger, J.

Whitaker, J. F.

A. B. Ruffin, J. V. Rudd, J. F. Whitaker, S. Feng, and H. G. Winful, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3410 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Winful, H. G.

S. Feng and H. G. Winful, Opt. Lett. 26, 485 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Ruffin, J. V. Rudd, J. F. Whitaker, S. Feng, and H. G. Winful, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3410 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

T. D. Visser and E. Wolf, Opt. Commun. 283, 3371 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Born, E. Wolf, and J. X. Cheng, Principles of Optics(Pergamon, 1980).

Xu, Z.

Zeng, Z.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. S. Kim, T. Scharf, S. Muhlig, C. Rockstuhl, and H. P. Herzig, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 191114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris (1)

L. G. Gouy, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 110, 1251 (1890).

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. (1)

A. Heifetz, S. C. Kong, A. V. Sahakian, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 6, 1979 (2009).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nat. Photon. (1)

L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, Nat. Photon. 5, 83 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

T. D. Visser and E. Wolf, Opt. Commun. 283, 3371 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

H. C. Kandpal, S. Raman, and R. Mehrotra, Opt. Lasers Eng. 45, 249 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. B. Ruffin, J. V. Rudd, J. F. Whitaker, S. Feng, and H. G. Winful, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3410 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. (1)

M. V. Berry, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. 392, 45 (1984).

Other (2)

M. Born, E. Wolf, and J. X. Cheng, Principles of Optics(Pergamon, 1980).

As checked with ray tracing software.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Principle of the experiment. A 5 μm polystyrene bead, immersed in a BK7 index matching oil, is directly imaged on the QWLSI wavefront sensor to proceed to the intensity and OPD measurements.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Intensity and OPD maps around the nanojet focal point. Computed (a) and measured (c) intensity maps (log scale) and (e) their overlaid sections over the z axis. Computed (b) and measured (d) OPD maps (linear scale) and (f) their overlaid sections over the z axis. Note that the displayed images have different scales along the x and z axes [see scales in (a)].

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

OPD map in the image space. (a) Ridge structure; (b) OPD map generated by the periodic ridge structure (white dashed line: ridge structure image); (c) bead; (d) OPD map generated by the bead (white dashed line: the bead image); (e) measured bead Gouy OPD (full black line) as compared with the λ/2 Gouy OPD analytic expression [dashed brown line, z0=kω02/2=2.5μm, ω0=0.75μm as deduced from Fig. 2(c)]. Scales are indicated on figures.

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