Abstract

We demonstrate that the phase shift of a reference injection-locked optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) varies as the change of its fiber delay over a long period of time. The dynamic variation of the fiber delay is monitored using an injected probe signal and is compared with the phase shift. With actively stabilized fiber delays according to the monitored data, the long-term frequency stability of the reference injection-locked OEO is evaluated.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1725 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1141 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. O. Okusaga, E. J. Adles, E. C. Levy, W. Zhou, G. M. Carter, C. R. Menyuk, and M. Horowitz, Opt. Express 19, 5839 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Adler, Proc. IRE 34, 351 (1946).
    [CrossRef]
  5. O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. B 98, 723 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Grosche, O. Terra, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, B. Lipphardt, F. Vogt, U. Sterr, and H. Schnatz, Opt. Lett. 34, 2270 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. H. Tseng and K. M. Feng, Opt. Express 20, 1597 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Razavi, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 39, 1415 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. B 98, 723 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2004 (1)

B. Razavi, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 39, 1415 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1725 (1996).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1946 (1)

R. Adler, Proc. IRE 34, 351 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Adler, R.

R. Adler, Proc. IRE 34, 351 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Adles, E. J.

Amy-Klein, A.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. B 98, 723 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Carter, G. M.

Chardonnet, C.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. B 98, 723 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Feng, K. M.

Grosche, G.

Holzwarth, R.

Horowitz, M.

Levy, E. C.

Lipphardt, B.

Lopez, O.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. B 98, 723 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lours, M.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. B 98, 723 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maleki, L.

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1725 (1996).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Menyuk, C. R.

Okusaga, O.

Predehl, K.

Razavi, B.

B. Razavi, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 39, 1415 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Santarelli, G.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. B 98, 723 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schnatz, H.

Sterr, U.

Terra, O.

Tseng, W. H.

Vogt, F.

Yao, X. S.

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1725 (1996).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, W.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. B 98, 723 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

B. Razavi, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 39, 1415 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. IRE (1)

R. Adler, Proc. IRE 34, 351 (1946).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic diagram of an OEO under injection. (b) Adler’s vector diagram of the injection-locked oscillator.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic setup of the reference injection-locked OEO with the probe signal setup. LD, 1310 nm direct modulation laser diode; PD, photodiode; SMF, single-mode fiber; AMP, amplifier; ATT, variable attenuator; PC, rf power combiner.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Comparison of OEO’s long fiber delay variation and its time shift relative to the injection reference.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Phase shift of the injection-locked OEO as a function of the free-running frequency offset from the injection frequency. The corresponding free-running frequencies of the measured data (dotted curve) were calculated from the fiber delay variation. The theory value (solid curve) was according to the Adler’s equation.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Allan deviation of the reference, the injection-locked (IL) OEO, and the IL OEO with phase correction. The results were compared against a maser.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

sinα=2QEoscEi·(ω0ωiω0),
ωLω02Q·EiEosc.
αα0=2πf0(tt0),
Δff0=(Δτ)τ0,

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