Abstract

We report on the monolithic integration of multimode interference couplers, Bragg gratings, and delay-line interferometers on an electro-optic polymer platform capable of modulation directly at 100Gb/s. We also report on the hybrid integration of InP active components with the polymer structure using the butt-coupling technique. Combining the passive and the active components, we demonstrate a polymer-based, external cavity laser with 17 nm tuning range and the optical assembly of an integrated 100Gb/s transmitter, and we reveal the potential of the electro-optic polymer technology to provide the next generation integration platform for complex, ultra-high-speed optical transceivers.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, Science 298, 1401 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Mallari, C. Wei, D. Jin, G. Yu, A. Barklund, E. Miller, P. O’Mathuna, R. Dinu, A. Motafakker-Fard, and B. Jalali, in Proceedings of 2010 Conference on Optical Fiber Communications (IEEE, 2010), paper OThU2.
  3. S. J. Mihailov and M. C. Gower, Electron. Lett. 30, 707 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Yariv and M. Nakamura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 233 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Bougioukos, T. Richter, Ch. Kouloumentas, V. Katopodis, R. Harmon, D. Rogers, J. Harrison, A. Poustie, G. Maxwell, C. Schubert, and H. Avramopoulos, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1649 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Groumas, V. Katopodis, Ch. Kouloumentas, M. Bougioukos, and H. Avramopoulos, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 179 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J.-Y. Dupuy, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, M. Riet, P. Berdaquer, J. Moulu, and J. Godin, Electron. Lett. 46, 55 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

P. Groumas, V. Katopodis, Ch. Kouloumentas, M. Bougioukos, and H. Avramopoulos, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 179 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

M. Bougioukos, T. Richter, Ch. Kouloumentas, V. Katopodis, R. Harmon, D. Rogers, J. Harrison, A. Poustie, G. Maxwell, C. Schubert, and H. Avramopoulos, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1649 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

J.-Y. Dupuy, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, M. Riet, P. Berdaquer, J. Moulu, and J. Godin, Electron. Lett. 46, 55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, Science 298, 1401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

S. J. Mihailov and M. C. Gower, Electron. Lett. 30, 707 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

A. Yariv and M. Nakamura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 233 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Avramopoulos, H.

P. Groumas, V. Katopodis, Ch. Kouloumentas, M. Bougioukos, and H. Avramopoulos, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 179 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Bougioukos, T. Richter, Ch. Kouloumentas, V. Katopodis, R. Harmon, D. Rogers, J. Harrison, A. Poustie, G. Maxwell, C. Schubert, and H. Avramopoulos, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1649 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Barklund, A.

J. Mallari, C. Wei, D. Jin, G. Yu, A. Barklund, E. Miller, P. O’Mathuna, R. Dinu, A. Motafakker-Fard, and B. Jalali, in Proceedings of 2010 Conference on Optical Fiber Communications (IEEE, 2010), paper OThU2.

Berdaquer, P.

J.-Y. Dupuy, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, M. Riet, P. Berdaquer, J. Moulu, and J. Godin, Electron. Lett. 46, 55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bougioukos, M.

P. Groumas, V. Katopodis, Ch. Kouloumentas, M. Bougioukos, and H. Avramopoulos, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 179 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Bougioukos, T. Richter, Ch. Kouloumentas, V. Katopodis, R. Harmon, D. Rogers, J. Harrison, A. Poustie, G. Maxwell, C. Schubert, and H. Avramopoulos, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1649 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dinu, R.

J. Mallari, C. Wei, D. Jin, G. Yu, A. Barklund, E. Miller, P. O’Mathuna, R. Dinu, A. Motafakker-Fard, and B. Jalali, in Proceedings of 2010 Conference on Optical Fiber Communications (IEEE, 2010), paper OThU2.

Dupuy, J.-Y.

J.-Y. Dupuy, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, M. Riet, P. Berdaquer, J. Moulu, and J. Godin, Electron. Lett. 46, 55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Erben, C.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, Science 298, 1401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gill, D. M.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, Science 298, 1401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Godin, J.

J.-Y. Dupuy, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, M. Riet, P. Berdaquer, J. Moulu, and J. Godin, Electron. Lett. 46, 55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gopalan, P.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, Science 298, 1401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gower, M. C.

S. J. Mihailov and M. C. Gower, Electron. Lett. 30, 707 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Groumas, P.

P. Groumas, V. Katopodis, Ch. Kouloumentas, M. Bougioukos, and H. Avramopoulos, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 179 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Harmon, R.

M. Bougioukos, T. Richter, Ch. Kouloumentas, V. Katopodis, R. Harmon, D. Rogers, J. Harrison, A. Poustie, G. Maxwell, C. Schubert, and H. Avramopoulos, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1649 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, J.

M. Bougioukos, T. Richter, Ch. Kouloumentas, V. Katopodis, R. Harmon, D. Rogers, J. Harrison, A. Poustie, G. Maxwell, C. Schubert, and H. Avramopoulos, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1649 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Heber, J. D.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, Science 298, 1401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

J. Mallari, C. Wei, D. Jin, G. Yu, A. Barklund, E. Miller, P. O’Mathuna, R. Dinu, A. Motafakker-Fard, and B. Jalali, in Proceedings of 2010 Conference on Optical Fiber Communications (IEEE, 2010), paper OThU2.

Jin, D.

J. Mallari, C. Wei, D. Jin, G. Yu, A. Barklund, E. Miller, P. O’Mathuna, R. Dinu, A. Motafakker-Fard, and B. Jalali, in Proceedings of 2010 Conference on Optical Fiber Communications (IEEE, 2010), paper OThU2.

Jorge, F.

J.-Y. Dupuy, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, M. Riet, P. Berdaquer, J. Moulu, and J. Godin, Electron. Lett. 46, 55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Katopodis, V.

P. Groumas, V. Katopodis, Ch. Kouloumentas, M. Bougioukos, and H. Avramopoulos, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 179 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Bougioukos, T. Richter, Ch. Kouloumentas, V. Katopodis, R. Harmon, D. Rogers, J. Harrison, A. Poustie, G. Maxwell, C. Schubert, and H. Avramopoulos, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1649 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Katz, H. E.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, Science 298, 1401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Konczykowska, A.

J.-Y. Dupuy, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, M. Riet, P. Berdaquer, J. Moulu, and J. Godin, Electron. Lett. 46, 55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kouloumentas, Ch.

P. Groumas, V. Katopodis, Ch. Kouloumentas, M. Bougioukos, and H. Avramopoulos, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 179 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Bougioukos, T. Richter, Ch. Kouloumentas, V. Katopodis, R. Harmon, D. Rogers, J. Harrison, A. Poustie, G. Maxwell, C. Schubert, and H. Avramopoulos, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1649 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, Science 298, 1401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mallari, J.

J. Mallari, C. Wei, D. Jin, G. Yu, A. Barklund, E. Miller, P. O’Mathuna, R. Dinu, A. Motafakker-Fard, and B. Jalali, in Proceedings of 2010 Conference on Optical Fiber Communications (IEEE, 2010), paper OThU2.

Maxwell, G.

M. Bougioukos, T. Richter, Ch. Kouloumentas, V. Katopodis, R. Harmon, D. Rogers, J. Harrison, A. Poustie, G. Maxwell, C. Schubert, and H. Avramopoulos, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1649 (2011).
[CrossRef]

McGee, D. J.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, Science 298, 1401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mihailov, S. J.

S. J. Mihailov and M. C. Gower, Electron. Lett. 30, 707 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Miller, E.

J. Mallari, C. Wei, D. Jin, G. Yu, A. Barklund, E. Miller, P. O’Mathuna, R. Dinu, A. Motafakker-Fard, and B. Jalali, in Proceedings of 2010 Conference on Optical Fiber Communications (IEEE, 2010), paper OThU2.

Motafakker-Fard, A.

J. Mallari, C. Wei, D. Jin, G. Yu, A. Barklund, E. Miller, P. O’Mathuna, R. Dinu, A. Motafakker-Fard, and B. Jalali, in Proceedings of 2010 Conference on Optical Fiber Communications (IEEE, 2010), paper OThU2.

Moulu, J.

J.-Y. Dupuy, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, M. Riet, P. Berdaquer, J. Moulu, and J. Godin, Electron. Lett. 46, 55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, M.

A. Yariv and M. Nakamura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 233 (1977).
[CrossRef]

O’Mathuna, P.

J. Mallari, C. Wei, D. Jin, G. Yu, A. Barklund, E. Miller, P. O’Mathuna, R. Dinu, A. Motafakker-Fard, and B. Jalali, in Proceedings of 2010 Conference on Optical Fiber Communications (IEEE, 2010), paper OThU2.

Poustie, A.

M. Bougioukos, T. Richter, Ch. Kouloumentas, V. Katopodis, R. Harmon, D. Rogers, J. Harrison, A. Poustie, G. Maxwell, C. Schubert, and H. Avramopoulos, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1649 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Richter, T.

M. Bougioukos, T. Richter, Ch. Kouloumentas, V. Katopodis, R. Harmon, D. Rogers, J. Harrison, A. Poustie, G. Maxwell, C. Schubert, and H. Avramopoulos, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1649 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Riet, M.

J.-Y. Dupuy, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, M. Riet, P. Berdaquer, J. Moulu, and J. Godin, Electron. Lett. 46, 55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, D.

M. Bougioukos, T. Richter, Ch. Kouloumentas, V. Katopodis, R. Harmon, D. Rogers, J. Harrison, A. Poustie, G. Maxwell, C. Schubert, and H. Avramopoulos, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1649 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, C.

M. Bougioukos, T. Richter, Ch. Kouloumentas, V. Katopodis, R. Harmon, D. Rogers, J. Harrison, A. Poustie, G. Maxwell, C. Schubert, and H. Avramopoulos, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1649 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wei, C.

J. Mallari, C. Wei, D. Jin, G. Yu, A. Barklund, E. Miller, P. O’Mathuna, R. Dinu, A. Motafakker-Fard, and B. Jalali, in Proceedings of 2010 Conference on Optical Fiber Communications (IEEE, 2010), paper OThU2.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv and M. Nakamura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 233 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Yu, G.

J. Mallari, C. Wei, D. Jin, G. Yu, A. Barklund, E. Miller, P. O’Mathuna, R. Dinu, A. Motafakker-Fard, and B. Jalali, in Proceedings of 2010 Conference on Optical Fiber Communications (IEEE, 2010), paper OThU2.

Electron. Lett. (2)

S. J. Mihailov and M. C. Gower, Electron. Lett. 30, 707 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Dupuy, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, M. Riet, P. Berdaquer, J. Moulu, and J. Godin, Electron. Lett. 46, 55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Yariv and M. Nakamura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 233 (1977).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

M. Bougioukos, T. Richter, Ch. Kouloumentas, V. Katopodis, R. Harmon, D. Rogers, J. Harrison, A. Poustie, G. Maxwell, C. Schubert, and H. Avramopoulos, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1649 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Groumas, V. Katopodis, Ch. Kouloumentas, M. Bougioukos, and H. Avramopoulos, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 179 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, Science 298, 1401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. Mallari, C. Wei, D. Jin, G. Yu, A. Barklund, E. Miller, P. O’Mathuna, R. Dinu, A. Motafakker-Fard, and B. Jalali, in Proceedings of 2010 Conference on Optical Fiber Communications (IEEE, 2010), paper OThU2.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Structure of EO polymer platform used in this work.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Two 1×2 MMI couplers and (b) a 1×4 MMI coupler. (c) Closer view of a 1×2 coupler with 12 μm width.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Design parameters of BGs; (b) fabricated BG structure; (c) polymer BG chip; (d) BG transfer function (dip at 1574.3 nm).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Transfer function of 160 GHz DI with full π-shift capability by injecting current into the thermal phase-shifter.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Polymer BG-based laser; (b) shift of the emission wavelength with temperature; and (c) BER curves of 40Gb/s modulated signals using as input cw the output of the polymer BG-based laser or the output of a DFB laser at 1566 nm. Eye diagrams for the two cases are shown in the insets.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Assembly of the 100Gb/s transmitter.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Spectrum at the MZM output at 50 mA driving current.

Equations (1)

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m·λB=2·ne·Λ,

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