Abstract

A light, compact optical isolator using an atomic vapor in the hyperfine Paschen–Back regime is presented. Absolute transmission spectra for experiment and theory through an isotopically pure Rb87 vapor cell show excellent agreement for fields of 0.6 T. We show π/4 rotation for a linearly polarized beam in the vicinity of the D2 line and achieve an isolation of 30 dB with a transmission >95%.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Dong, J. Fang, B. Zhou, J. Qin, and S. Wan, Microsyst. Technol. 16, 1683 (2010).
  2. J. Tatum, Proc. SPIE 6484, 648403 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. A. Liew, S. Knappe, J. Moreland, H. Robinson, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2694 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, Nature 434, 488 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Ghosh, J. E. Sharping, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 93902 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Knappe, V. Shah, A. Brannon, V. Gerginov, H. G. Robinson, Z. Popović, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Proc. SPIE 6673, 667307 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. Shah, S. Knappe, P. D. D. Schwindt, and J. Kitching, Nat. Photon. 1, 649 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. A. Donley, in IEEE Sensors 2010 Conference (2010), p. 17.
  9. S. A. Knappe, H. G. Robinson, and L. Hollberg, Opt. Express 15, 6293 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Lee, G. Z. Iwata, E. Corsini, J. M. Higbie, S. Knappe, M. P. Ledbetter, and D. Budker, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 043107 (2011).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  21. B. E. Sherlock and I. G. Hughes, Am. J. Phys. 77, 111(2009).
    [CrossRef]
  22. L. Weller, K. S. Kleinbach, M. A. Zentile, S. Knappe, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes are preparing a manuscript to be titled “Absolute absorption and dispersion of a rubidium vapour in the hyperfine Paschen–Back regime.”
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2012 (3)

2011 (4)

L. Weller, R. J. Bettles, P. Siddons, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes, J. Phys. B 44, 195006 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Kemp, I. G. Hughes, and S. L. Cornish, J. Phys. B 44, 235004 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. G. Víllora, P. Molina, M. Nakamura, K. Shimamura, T. Hatanaka, A. Funaki, and K. Naoe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Lee, G. Z. Iwata, E. Corsini, J. M. Higbie, S. Knappe, M. P. Ledbetter, and D. Budker, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 043107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

H. Dong, J. Fang, B. Zhou, J. Qin, and S. Wan, Microsyst. Technol. 16, 1683 (2010).

2009 (4)

R. P. Abel, U. Krohn, P. Siddons, I. G. Hughes, and C. S. Adams, Opt. Lett. 34, 3071 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Siddons, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes, J. Phys. B 42, 175004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Siddons, N. C. Bell, Y. Cai, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes, Nat. Photon. 3, 225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Sherlock and I. G. Hughes, Am. J. Phys. 77, 111(2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

P. Siddons, C. S. Adams, C. Ge, and I. G. Hughes, J. Phys. B 41, 155004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

J. Tatum, Proc. SPIE 6484, 648403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Knappe, V. Shah, A. Brannon, V. Gerginov, H. G. Robinson, Z. Popović, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Proc. SPIE 6673, 667307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Shah, S. Knappe, P. D. D. Schwindt, and J. Kitching, Nat. Photon. 1, 649 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Knappe, H. G. Robinson, and L. Hollberg, Opt. Express 15, 6293 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, Nature 434, 488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Ghosh, J. E. Sharping, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 93902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

L. A. Liew, S. Knappe, J. Moreland, H. Robinson, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2694 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. G. Bai, G. Q. Lu, and T. Lin, Sens. Actuators A 109, 9 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

R. Wynands, F. Diedrich, D. Meschede, and H. R. Telle, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5586 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

Abel, R. P.

Adams, C. S.

L. Weller, T. Dalton, P. Siddons, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes, J. Phys. B 45, 055001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Weller, R. J. Bettles, P. Siddons, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes, J. Phys. B 44, 195006 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Siddons, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes, J. Phys. B 42, 175004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Siddons, N. C. Bell, Y. Cai, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes, Nat. Photon. 3, 225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Abel, U. Krohn, P. Siddons, I. G. Hughes, and C. S. Adams, Opt. Lett. 34, 3071 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Siddons, C. S. Adams, C. Ge, and I. G. Hughes, J. Phys. B 41, 155004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Weller, K. S. Kleinbach, M. A. Zentile, S. Knappe, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes are preparing a manuscript to be titled “Absolute absorption and dispersion of a rubidium vapour in the hyperfine Paschen–Back regime.”

Bai, J. G.

J. G. Bai, G. Q. Lu, and T. Lin, Sens. Actuators A 109, 9 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Beduini, F. A.

Bell, N. C.

P. Siddons, N. C. Bell, Y. Cai, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes, Nat. Photon. 3, 225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Benabid, F.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, Nature 434, 488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bettles, R. J.

L. Weller, R. J. Bettles, P. Siddons, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes, J. Phys. B 44, 195006 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, Nature 434, 488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

Brannon, A.

S. Knappe, V. Shah, A. Brannon, V. Gerginov, H. G. Robinson, Z. Popović, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Proc. SPIE 6673, 667307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Budker, D.

C. Lee, G. Z. Iwata, E. Corsini, J. M. Higbie, S. Knappe, M. P. Ledbetter, and D. Budker, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 043107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Y.

P. Siddons, N. C. Bell, Y. Cai, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes, Nat. Photon. 3, 225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cornish, S. L.

S. L. Kemp, I. G. Hughes, and S. L. Cornish, J. Phys. B 44, 235004 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Corsini, E.

C. Lee, G. Z. Iwata, E. Corsini, J. M. Higbie, S. Knappe, M. P. Ledbetter, and D. Budker, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 043107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Couny, F.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, Nature 434, 488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, T.

L. Weller, T. Dalton, P. Siddons, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes, J. Phys. B 45, 055001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Diedrich, F.

R. Wynands, F. Diedrich, D. Meschede, and H. R. Telle, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5586 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dong, H.

H. Dong, J. Fang, B. Zhou, J. Qin, and S. Wan, Microsyst. Technol. 16, 1683 (2010).

Donley, E. A.

E. A. Donley, in IEEE Sensors 2010 Conference (2010), p. 17.

Fang, J.

H. Dong, J. Fang, B. Zhou, J. Qin, and S. Wan, Microsyst. Technol. 16, 1683 (2010).

Funaki, A.

E. G. Víllora, P. Molina, M. Nakamura, K. Shimamura, T. Hatanaka, A. Funaki, and K. Naoe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

S. Ghosh, J. E. Sharping, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 93902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, D. J.

Ge, C.

P. Siddons, C. S. Adams, C. Ge, and I. G. Hughes, J. Phys. B 41, 155004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gerginov, V.

S. Knappe, V. Shah, A. Brannon, V. Gerginov, H. G. Robinson, Z. Popović, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Proc. SPIE 6673, 667307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, S.

S. Ghosh, J. E. Sharping, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 93902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Godbout, N.

Hakhumyan, G.

Hatanaka, T.

E. G. Víllora, P. Molina, M. Nakamura, K. Shimamura, T. Hatanaka, A. Funaki, and K. Naoe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Higbie, J. M.

C. Lee, G. Z. Iwata, E. Corsini, J. M. Higbie, S. Knappe, M. P. Ledbetter, and D. Budker, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 043107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

S. Knappe, V. Shah, A. Brannon, V. Gerginov, H. G. Robinson, Z. Popović, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Proc. SPIE 6673, 667307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Knappe, H. G. Robinson, and L. Hollberg, Opt. Express 15, 6293 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Liew, S. Knappe, J. Moreland, H. Robinson, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2694 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, I. G.

L. Weller, T. Dalton, P. Siddons, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes, J. Phys. B 45, 055001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Weller, R. J. Bettles, P. Siddons, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes, J. Phys. B 44, 195006 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Kemp, I. G. Hughes, and S. L. Cornish, J. Phys. B 44, 235004 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Sherlock and I. G. Hughes, Am. J. Phys. 77, 111(2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Siddons, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes, J. Phys. B 42, 175004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Siddons, N. C. Bell, Y. Cai, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes, Nat. Photon. 3, 225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Abel, U. Krohn, P. Siddons, I. G. Hughes, and C. S. Adams, Opt. Lett. 34, 3071 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Siddons, C. S. Adams, C. Ge, and I. G. Hughes, J. Phys. B 41, 155004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Weller, K. S. Kleinbach, M. A. Zentile, S. Knappe, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes are preparing a manuscript to be titled “Absolute absorption and dispersion of a rubidium vapour in the hyperfine Paschen–Back regime.”

Iwata, G. Z.

C. Lee, G. Z. Iwata, E. Corsini, J. M. Higbie, S. Knappe, M. P. Ledbetter, and D. Budker, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 043107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kemp, S. L.

S. L. Kemp, I. G. Hughes, and S. L. Cornish, J. Phys. B 44, 235004 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kitching, J.

S. Knappe, V. Shah, A. Brannon, V. Gerginov, H. G. Robinson, Z. Popović, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Proc. SPIE 6673, 667307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Shah, S. Knappe, P. D. D. Schwindt, and J. Kitching, Nat. Photon. 1, 649 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Liew, S. Knappe, J. Moreland, H. Robinson, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2694 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kleinbach, K. S.

L. Weller, K. S. Kleinbach, M. A. Zentile, S. Knappe, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes are preparing a manuscript to be titled “Absolute absorption and dispersion of a rubidium vapour in the hyperfine Paschen–Back regime.”

Knappe, S.

C. Lee, G. Z. Iwata, E. Corsini, J. M. Higbie, S. Knappe, M. P. Ledbetter, and D. Budker, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 043107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Shah, S. Knappe, P. D. D. Schwindt, and J. Kitching, Nat. Photon. 1, 649 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Knappe, V. Shah, A. Brannon, V. Gerginov, H. G. Robinson, Z. Popović, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Proc. SPIE 6673, 667307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Liew, S. Knappe, J. Moreland, H. Robinson, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2694 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Weller, K. S. Kleinbach, M. A. Zentile, S. Knappe, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes are preparing a manuscript to be titled “Absolute absorption and dispersion of a rubidium vapour in the hyperfine Paschen–Back regime.”

Knappe, S. A.

Knight, J. C.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, Nature 434, 488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krohn, U.

Ledbetter, M. P.

C. Lee, G. Z. Iwata, E. Corsini, J. M. Higbie, S. Knappe, M. P. Ledbetter, and D. Budker, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 043107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.

C. Lee, G. Z. Iwata, E. Corsini, J. M. Higbie, S. Knappe, M. P. Ledbetter, and D. Budker, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 043107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Leroy, C.

Liew, L. A.

L. A. Liew, S. Knappe, J. Moreland, H. Robinson, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2694 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, T.

J. G. Bai, G. Q. Lu, and T. Lin, Sens. Actuators A 109, 9 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lu, G. Q.

J. G. Bai, G. Q. Lu, and T. Lin, Sens. Actuators A 109, 9 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meschede, D.

R. Wynands, F. Diedrich, D. Meschede, and H. R. Telle, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5586 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, M. W.

Molina, P.

E. G. Víllora, P. Molina, M. Nakamura, K. Shimamura, T. Hatanaka, A. Funaki, and K. Naoe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Moreland, J.

L. A. Liew, S. Knappe, J. Moreland, H. Robinson, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2694 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, M.

E. G. Víllora, P. Molina, M. Nakamura, K. Shimamura, T. Hatanaka, A. Funaki, and K. Naoe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Naoe, K.

E. G. Víllora, P. Molina, M. Nakamura, K. Shimamura, T. Hatanaka, A. Funaki, and K. Naoe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Narum, P.

Ouzounov, D. G.

S. Ghosh, J. E. Sharping, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 93902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Papoyan, A.

Pashayan-Leroy, Y.

Popovic, Z.

S. Knappe, V. Shah, A. Brannon, V. Gerginov, H. G. Robinson, Z. Popović, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Proc. SPIE 6673, 667307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qin, J.

H. Dong, J. Fang, B. Zhou, J. Qin, and S. Wan, Microsyst. Technol. 16, 1683 (2010).

Robinson, H.

L. A. Liew, S. Knappe, J. Moreland, H. Robinson, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2694 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, H. G.

S. Knappe, V. Shah, A. Brannon, V. Gerginov, H. G. Robinson, Z. Popović, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Proc. SPIE 6673, 667307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Knappe, H. G. Robinson, and L. Hollberg, Opt. Express 15, 6293 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. S. J.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, Nature 434, 488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sargsyan, A.

Sarkisyan, D.

Schwindt, P. D. D.

V. Shah, S. Knappe, P. D. D. Schwindt, and J. Kitching, Nat. Photon. 1, 649 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shah, V.

S. Knappe, V. Shah, A. Brannon, V. Gerginov, H. G. Robinson, Z. Popović, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Proc. SPIE 6673, 667307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Shah, S. Knappe, P. D. D. Schwindt, and J. Kitching, Nat. Photon. 1, 649 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sharping, J. E.

S. Ghosh, J. E. Sharping, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 93902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sherlock, B. E.

B. E. Sherlock and I. G. Hughes, Am. J. Phys. 77, 111(2009).
[CrossRef]

Shimamura, K.

E. G. Víllora, P. Molina, M. Nakamura, K. Shimamura, T. Hatanaka, A. Funaki, and K. Naoe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Siddons, P.

L. Weller, T. Dalton, P. Siddons, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes, J. Phys. B 45, 055001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Weller, R. J. Bettles, P. Siddons, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes, J. Phys. B 44, 195006 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Siddons, N. C. Bell, Y. Cai, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes, Nat. Photon. 3, 225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Siddons, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes, J. Phys. B 42, 175004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Abel, U. Krohn, P. Siddons, I. G. Hughes, and C. S. Adams, Opt. Lett. 34, 3071 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Siddons, C. S. Adams, C. Ge, and I. G. Hughes, J. Phys. B 41, 155004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tatum, J.

J. Tatum, Proc. SPIE 6484, 648403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Telle, H. R.

R. Wynands, F. Diedrich, D. Meschede, and H. R. Telle, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5586 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Víllora, E. G.

E. G. Víllora, P. Molina, M. Nakamura, K. Shimamura, T. Hatanaka, A. Funaki, and K. Naoe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wan, S.

H. Dong, J. Fang, B. Zhou, J. Qin, and S. Wan, Microsyst. Technol. 16, 1683 (2010).

Weller, L.

L. Weller, T. Dalton, P. Siddons, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes, J. Phys. B 45, 055001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Weller, R. J. Bettles, P. Siddons, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes, J. Phys. B 44, 195006 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Weller, K. S. Kleinbach, M. A. Zentile, S. Knappe, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes are preparing a manuscript to be titled “Absolute absorption and dispersion of a rubidium vapour in the hyperfine Paschen–Back regime.”

Wynands, R.

R. Wynands, F. Diedrich, D. Meschede, and H. R. Telle, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5586 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zentile, M. A.

L. Weller, K. S. Kleinbach, M. A. Zentile, S. Knappe, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes are preparing a manuscript to be titled “Absolute absorption and dispersion of a rubidium vapour in the hyperfine Paschen–Back regime.”

Zhou, B.

H. Dong, J. Fang, B. Zhou, J. Qin, and S. Wan, Microsyst. Technol. 16, 1683 (2010).

Zieliska, J. A.

Am. J. Phys. (1)

B. E. Sherlock and I. G. Hughes, Am. J. Phys. 77, 111(2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

L. A. Liew, S. Knappe, J. Moreland, H. Robinson, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2694 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. G. Víllora, P. Molina, M. Nakamura, K. Shimamura, T. Hatanaka, A. Funaki, and K. Naoe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (5)

P. Siddons, C. S. Adams, C. Ge, and I. G. Hughes, J. Phys. B 41, 155004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Kemp, I. G. Hughes, and S. L. Cornish, J. Phys. B 44, 235004 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Siddons, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes, J. Phys. B 42, 175004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Weller, R. J. Bettles, P. Siddons, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes, J. Phys. B 44, 195006 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Weller, T. Dalton, P. Siddons, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes, J. Phys. B 45, 055001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Microsyst. Technol. (1)

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L. Weller, K. S. Kleinbach, M. A. Zentile, S. Knappe, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes are preparing a manuscript to be titled “Absolute absorption and dispersion of a rubidium vapour in the hyperfine Paschen–Back regime.”

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the experimental apparatus and measured magnetic field profile through the center of the neodymium magnet. The dimensions and mass of a typical magnet used in this investigation are also shown. A beam passes through a polarization beam splitter (PBS), providing linearly polarized light along the horizontal axis. The beam then passes through a heated microfabricated cell held in the center of the magnet (M), which provides an axial field. A second PBS is set to π/4 to allow high transmission, T+, along +z and low transmission, T, along z.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Transmission spectra of atomic vapor (a) without and (b) with an applied field illustrating the opening of a transparency window over resonance. Panel (a) shows the theoretical (solid blue) transmission spectra at a temperature of 60.4 °C through a natural-abundant cell, highlighting the four absorption peaks of interest for isolation. Panel (b) shows the measured (solid green) line transmission spectra at a magnetic field of 0.576 T and a temperature of (60.4±0.2)°C through a Rb87 cell. Panel (c) shows the energy-level splittings for the ground (5S1/22) and excited terms (5P3/22) of Rb87 on the D2 line. In the hyperfine Paschen–Back regime, mJ is now a good quantum number, and the transitions with ΔmJ=±1 correspond to the 16 absorption peaks we measure in panel (b).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Forward T+ and backward T transmission illustrating the isolator effect as a function of detuning around resonance. Panel (a) shows the theoretical (solid black) transmission through a natural-abundant cell in the absence of field and at a fixed temperature of 60.4 °C. The four absorption peaks highlight the required detuning values for isolation. Panels (b), (c), and (d) show comparisons between experiment (solid colored) and theory (dashed black) through an isotopically pure Rb87 cell in the presence of a fixed field of 0.597 T and a temperature value of (135.2±0.4)°C, which corresponds to a region where we expect π/4 rotation.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Verdet Constants and FOMs for the Three Magneto-Optic Materials: TGG, YIG, and Rb vapor (This Work), at a Wavelength of 780 nm

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