Abstract

In this letter, we demonstrate a refractive index sensor based on a subwavelength plasmon interferometer. Illumination of an atilt subwavelength slit-grove pair on a metal surface with monochromatic light generates high-contrast interference fringes of the transmitted light. Detection of the refractive index of the dielectric medium on the metal surface is based on examining the relative position of the interference fringes. Integration of the plasmon interferometer with a microfluidic channel provides a sensitive, high-throughput sensor with small detection volume.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2012

J. Feng, V. S. Siu, A. Roelke, V. Mehta, S. Y. Rhieu, G. T. R. Palmore, and D. Pacifici, Nano Lett. 12, 602 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

M. Okan, O. Balci, and C. Kocabas, Sens. Actuators B 160, 670 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

A. A. Yanik, M. Huang, A. Artar, T. Y. Chang, and H. Altug, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 021101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Jan, Y. H. Lee, and C. K. Lee, Plasmonics Biol. Med. 7, 7577 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Temnov, G. Armelles, U. Woggon, D. Guzatov, A. Cebollada, A. Garcia-Martin, J. M. Garcia-Martin, T. Thomay, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, Nat. Photon. 4, 107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, Nat. Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Dicken, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, K. Bhattacharya, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 8, 4048 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

R. Slavik and J. Homola, Sens. Actuators B 123, 10 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 445, 39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

D. Janasek, J. Franzke, and A. Manz, Nature 442, 374 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Yager, T. Edwards, E. Fu, K. Helton, K. Nelson, M. R. Tam, and B. H. Weigl, Nature 442, 412 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Craighead, Nature 442, 387 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. Homola, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 528 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

G. G. Nenninger, P. Tobiska, J. Homola, and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 74, 145 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

D. Braun and P. Fromherz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5241 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kabashin and P. I. Nikitin, Opt. Commun. 150, 5 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Duffy, J. C. McDonald, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, Anal. Chem. 70, 4974 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Altug, H.

A. A. Yanik, M. Huang, A. Artar, T. Y. Chang, and H. Altug, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 021101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, Nat. Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Armelles, G.

V. V. Temnov, G. Armelles, U. Woggon, D. Guzatov, A. Cebollada, A. Garcia-Martin, J. M. Garcia-Martin, T. Thomay, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, Nat. Photon. 4, 107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Temnov, K. Nelson, G. Armelles, A. Cebollada, T. Thomay, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, Opt. Express 17, 8423 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Artar, A.

A. A. Yanik, M. Huang, A. Artar, T. Y. Chang, and H. Altug, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 021101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

M. J. Dicken, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, K. Bhattacharya, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 8, 4048 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Balci, O.

M. Okan, O. Balci, and C. Kocabas, Sens. Actuators B 160, 670 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, K.

M. J. Dicken, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, K. Bhattacharya, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 8, 4048 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bratschitsch, R.

V. V. Temnov, G. Armelles, U. Woggon, D. Guzatov, A. Cebollada, A. Garcia-Martin, J. M. Garcia-Martin, T. Thomay, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, Nat. Photon. 4, 107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Temnov, K. Nelson, G. Armelles, A. Cebollada, T. Thomay, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, Opt. Express 17, 8423 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Braun, D.

D. Braun and P. Fromherz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5241 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cebollada, A.

V. V. Temnov, G. Armelles, U. Woggon, D. Guzatov, A. Cebollada, A. Garcia-Martin, J. M. Garcia-Martin, T. Thomay, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, Nat. Photon. 4, 107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Temnov, K. Nelson, G. Armelles, A. Cebollada, T. Thomay, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, Opt. Express 17, 8423 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, T. Y.

A. A. Yanik, M. Huang, A. Artar, T. Y. Chang, and H. Altug, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 021101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. J.

Craighead, H.

H. Craighead, Nature 442, 387 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dicken, M. J.

M. J. Dicken, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, K. Bhattacharya, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 8, 4048 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Duffy, D. C.

D. C. Duffy, J. C. McDonald, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, Anal. Chem. 70, 4974 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 445, 39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, T.

P. Yager, T. Edwards, E. Fu, K. Helton, K. Nelson, M. R. Tam, and B. H. Weigl, Nature 442, 412 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Feng, J.

J. Feng, V. S. Siu, A. Roelke, V. Mehta, S. Y. Rhieu, G. T. R. Palmore, and D. Pacifici, Nano Lett. 12, 602 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Franzke, J.

D. Janasek, J. Franzke, and A. Manz, Nature 442, 374 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fromherz, P.

D. Braun and P. Fromherz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5241 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fu, E.

P. Yager, T. Edwards, E. Fu, K. Helton, K. Nelson, M. R. Tam, and B. H. Weigl, Nature 442, 412 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Martin, A.

V. V. Temnov, G. Armelles, U. Woggon, D. Guzatov, A. Cebollada, A. Garcia-Martin, J. M. Garcia-Martin, T. Thomay, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, Nat. Photon. 4, 107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Martin, J. M.

V. V. Temnov, G. Armelles, U. Woggon, D. Guzatov, A. Cebollada, A. Garcia-Martin, J. M. Garcia-Martin, T. Thomay, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, Nat. Photon. 4, 107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Genet, C.

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 445, 39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Q. H.

Guzatov, D.

V. V. Temnov, G. Armelles, U. Woggon, D. Guzatov, A. Cebollada, A. Garcia-Martin, J. M. Garcia-Martin, T. Thomay, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, Nat. Photon. 4, 107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hall, W. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, Nat. Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Helton, K.

P. Yager, T. Edwards, E. Fu, K. Helton, K. Nelson, M. R. Tam, and B. H. Weigl, Nature 442, 412 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

M. Piliarik and J. Homola, Opt. Express 17, 16505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavik and J. Homola, Sens. Actuators B 123, 10 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 528 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Nenninger, P. Tobiska, J. Homola, and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 74, 145 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.

A. A. Yanik, M. Huang, A. Artar, T. Y. Chang, and H. Altug, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 021101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jan, C. M.

C. M. Jan, Y. H. Lee, and C. K. Lee, Plasmonics Biol. Med. 7, 7577 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Janasek, D.

D. Janasek, J. Franzke, and A. Manz, Nature 442, 374 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kabashin, A. V.

A. V. Kabashin and P. I. Nikitin, Opt. Commun. 150, 5 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kocabas, C.

M. Okan, O. Balci, and C. Kocabas, Sens. Actuators B 160, 670 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. K.

C. M. Jan, Y. H. Lee, and C. K. Lee, Plasmonics Biol. Med. 7, 7577 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. H.

C. M. Jan, Y. H. Lee, and C. K. Lee, Plasmonics Biol. Med. 7, 7577 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Leitenstorfer, A.

V. V. Temnov, G. Armelles, U. Woggon, D. Guzatov, A. Cebollada, A. Garcia-Martin, J. M. Garcia-Martin, T. Thomay, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, Nat. Photon. 4, 107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Temnov, K. Nelson, G. Armelles, A. Cebollada, T. Thomay, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, Opt. Express 17, 8423 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H. J.

M. J. Dicken, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, K. Bhattacharya, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 8, 4048 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lyandres, O.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, Nat. Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Manz, A.

D. Janasek, J. Franzke, and A. Manz, Nature 442, 374 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McDonald, J. C.

D. C. Duffy, J. C. McDonald, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, Anal. Chem. 70, 4974 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mehta, V.

J. Feng, V. S. Siu, A. Roelke, V. Mehta, S. Y. Rhieu, G. T. R. Palmore, and D. Pacifici, Nano Lett. 12, 602 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, K.

V. V. Temnov, K. Nelson, G. Armelles, A. Cebollada, T. Thomay, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, Opt. Express 17, 8423 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Yager, T. Edwards, E. Fu, K. Helton, K. Nelson, M. R. Tam, and B. H. Weigl, Nature 442, 412 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nenninger, G. G.

G. G. Nenninger, P. Tobiska, J. Homola, and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 74, 145 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nikitin, P. I.

A. V. Kabashin and P. I. Nikitin, Opt. Commun. 150, 5 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Okan, M.

M. Okan, O. Balci, and C. Kocabas, Sens. Actuators B 160, 670 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pacifici, D.

J. Feng, V. S. Siu, A. Roelke, V. Mehta, S. Y. Rhieu, G. T. R. Palmore, and D. Pacifici, Nano Lett. 12, 602 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Dicken, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, K. Bhattacharya, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 8, 4048 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Palmore, G. T. R.

J. Feng, V. S. Siu, A. Roelke, V. Mehta, S. Y. Rhieu, G. T. R. Palmore, and D. Pacifici, Nano Lett. 12, 602 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Piliarik, M.

Rhieu, S. Y.

J. Feng, V. S. Siu, A. Roelke, V. Mehta, S. Y. Rhieu, G. T. R. Palmore, and D. Pacifici, Nano Lett. 12, 602 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Roelke, A.

J. Feng, V. S. Siu, A. Roelke, V. Mehta, S. Y. Rhieu, G. T. R. Palmore, and D. Pacifici, Nano Lett. 12, 602 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schueller, O. J. A.

D. C. Duffy, J. C. McDonald, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, Anal. Chem. 70, 4974 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shah, N. C.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, Nat. Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Siu, V. S.

J. Feng, V. S. Siu, A. Roelke, V. Mehta, S. Y. Rhieu, G. T. R. Palmore, and D. Pacifici, Nano Lett. 12, 602 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Slavik, R.

R. Slavik and J. Homola, Sens. Actuators B 123, 10 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sweatlock, L. A.

M. J. Dicken, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, K. Bhattacharya, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 8, 4048 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tam, M. R.

P. Yager, T. Edwards, E. Fu, K. Helton, K. Nelson, M. R. Tam, and B. H. Weigl, Nature 442, 412 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Temnov, V. V.

V. V. Temnov, G. Armelles, U. Woggon, D. Guzatov, A. Cebollada, A. Garcia-Martin, J. M. Garcia-Martin, T. Thomay, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, Nat. Photon. 4, 107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Temnov, K. Nelson, G. Armelles, A. Cebollada, T. Thomay, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, Opt. Express 17, 8423 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thomay, T.

V. V. Temnov, G. Armelles, U. Woggon, D. Guzatov, A. Cebollada, A. Garcia-Martin, J. M. Garcia-Martin, T. Thomay, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, Nat. Photon. 4, 107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Temnov, K. Nelson, G. Armelles, A. Cebollada, T. Thomay, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, Opt. Express 17, 8423 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tobiska, P.

G. G. Nenninger, P. Tobiska, J. Homola, and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 74, 145 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Van Duyne, R. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, Nat. Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Weigl, B. H.

P. Yager, T. Edwards, E. Fu, K. Helton, K. Nelson, M. R. Tam, and B. H. Weigl, Nature 442, 412 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Whitesides, G. M.

D. C. Duffy, J. C. McDonald, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, Anal. Chem. 70, 4974 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Woggon, U.

V. V. Temnov, G. Armelles, U. Woggon, D. Guzatov, A. Cebollada, A. Garcia-Martin, J. M. Garcia-Martin, T. Thomay, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, Nat. Photon. 4, 107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X. F.

Yager, P.

P. Yager, T. Edwards, E. Fu, K. Helton, K. Nelson, M. R. Tam, and B. H. Weigl, Nature 442, 412 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yanik, A. A.

A. A. Yanik, M. Huang, A. Artar, T. Y. Chang, and H. Altug, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 021101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yee, S. S.

G. G. Nenninger, P. Tobiska, J. Homola, and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 74, 145 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. S.

Zhao, C. L.

Zhao, J.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, Nat. Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem.

J. Homola, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 528 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem.

D. C. Duffy, J. C. McDonald, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, Anal. Chem. 70, 4974 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. A. Yanik, M. Huang, A. Artar, T. Y. Chang, and H. Altug, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 021101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

M. J. Dicken, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, K. Bhattacharya, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 8, 4048 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Feng, V. S. Siu, A. Roelke, V. Mehta, S. Y. Rhieu, G. T. R. Palmore, and D. Pacifici, Nano Lett. 12, 602 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, Nat. Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon.

V. V. Temnov, G. Armelles, U. Woggon, D. Guzatov, A. Cebollada, A. Garcia-Martin, J. M. Garcia-Martin, T. Thomay, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, Nat. Photon. 4, 107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature

D. Janasek, J. Franzke, and A. Manz, Nature 442, 374 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Yager, T. Edwards, E. Fu, K. Helton, K. Nelson, M. R. Tam, and B. H. Weigl, Nature 442, 412 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Craighead, Nature 442, 387 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 445, 39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

A. V. Kabashin and P. I. Nikitin, Opt. Commun. 150, 5 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

D. Braun and P. Fromherz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5241 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Plasmonics Biol. Med.

C. M. Jan, Y. H. Lee, and C. K. Lee, Plasmonics Biol. Med. 7, 7577 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B

G. G. Nenninger, P. Tobiska, J. Homola, and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 74, 145 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Okan, O. Balci, and C. Kocabas, Sens. Actuators B 160, 670 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavik and J. Homola, Sens. Actuators B 123, 10 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic representation of the plasmon interferometer. The interferometer is fabricated on a quartz substrate coated with 150 nm thick gold film; (b, c) Scanning electron microscope images of the fabricated plasmon interferometer with grove-slit angles of 5 and 15 degrees, respectively. The width of groove and slit are 200 nm and 100 nm, respectively; (d, e) Optical microscope images of the interference fringe pattern generated by the interference of SPPs excited by the groove-slit pair. The scale bars are 10 μm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Optical microscope images of the fringe pattern generated by plasmon interferometer with a tilting angle of 10°, integrated in a microfluidic device. The index of refraction of the medium is varied linearly between n1=1.34 and n5=1.37. The pattern has 21 fringes. The relative position of the fringes shifts as the index of refraction changes; (b, c) Spatial intensity distribution of the first and last four fringes. The relative positions of first fringes stay nearly constant; (d) Fringe displacement as a function of index of refraction. The slope of the curve provides the sensitivity of the sensor.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Calculated interference fringes for two different indices of refraction (n=1.33, dark curve; n=1.34, light curve) generated by a plasmon interferometer with a length of 50 μm and a slit-groove angle of 10°. The inset shows the CCD image of the interference fringes; (b) Measured and calculated period of the fringe pattern as a function of change of index of refraction; (c) Normalized displacement of the fringes as a function of change of index of refraction. The inset shows the sensitivity as a function of fringe index; (d) Normalized intensity change along the slit position.

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