Abstract

Multimode propagation in silicon core optical fibers is investigated via numerical modeling of the coupled mode equations. The simulations consider spectral evolution in two fibers with different micrometer-sized cores that have experimentally been shown to exhibit nonlinear broadening. The results indicate that most of the coupled power is propagated in the fundamental mode of each fiber, with a small contribution from the higher-order modes affecting the spectral shape but not the width of the broadening.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, R. Stolen, B. Kokuoz, M. Ellison, C. McMillen, J. Reppert, A. M. Rao, M. Daw, S. Sharma, R. Shori, O. Stafsudd, R. R. Rice, and D. R. Powers, Opt. Express 16, 18675 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

J. R. Sparks, R. He, N. Healy, M. Krishnamurthi, A. C. Peacock, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, Adv. Mater. 23, 1647 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, R. He, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Opt. Express 19, 10979 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

P. Mehta, N. Healy, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Opt. Express 18, 16826 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 160 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1980 (1)

H. H. Li, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 9, 561 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic1995).

Badding, J. V.

J. R. Sparks, R. He, N. Healy, M. Krishnamurthi, A. C. Peacock, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, Adv. Mater. 23, 1647 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, R. He, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Opt. Express 19, 10979 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Mehta, N. Healy, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Opt. Express 18, 16826 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, M. N. Petrovich, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Opt. Express 17, 18076 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Mehta, N. Healy, T. D. Day, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, in CLEO Science and Innovations, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper CTh1C.2.

Ballato, J.

Baril, N. F.

Burka, L.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 160 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Daw, M.

Day, T. D.

P. Mehta, N. Healy, T. D. Day, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, in CLEO Science and Innovations, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper CTh1C.2.

DeLong, K. W.

Ellison, M.

Fittinghoff, D. N.

Foy, P.

Gopalan, V.

J. R. Sparks, R. He, N. Healy, M. Krishnamurthi, A. C. Peacock, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, Adv. Mater. 23, 1647 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hawkins, T.

He, R.

N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, R. He, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Opt. Express 19, 10979 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Sparks, R. He, N. Healy, M. Krishnamurthi, A. C. Peacock, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, Adv. Mater. 23, 1647 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Healy, N.

J. R. Sparks, R. He, N. Healy, M. Krishnamurthi, A. C. Peacock, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, Adv. Mater. 23, 1647 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, R. He, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Opt. Express 19, 10979 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Mehta, N. Healy, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Opt. Express 18, 16826 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, M. N. Petrovich, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Opt. Express 17, 18076 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Mehta, N. Healy, T. D. Day, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, in CLEO Science and Innovations, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper CTh1C.2.

Hunsperger, R. G.

R. G. Hunsperger, Integrated Optics: Theory and Technology, 6th ed. (Springer2009).

Kokuoz, B.

Krishnamurthi, M.

J. R. Sparks, R. He, N. Healy, M. Krishnamurthi, A. C. Peacock, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, Adv. Mater. 23, 1647 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ladera, C. L.

Li, H. H.

H. H. Li, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 9, 561 (1980).
[CrossRef]

McMillen, C.

Mehta, P.

P. Mehta, N. Healy, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Opt. Express 18, 16826 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Mehta, N. Healy, T. D. Day, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, in CLEO Science and Innovations, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper CTh1C.2.

Morris, S.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 160 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Panoiu, N. C.

X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 160 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Peacock, A. C.

N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, R. He, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Opt. Express 19, 10979 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Sparks, R. He, N. Healy, M. Krishnamurthi, A. C. Peacock, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, Adv. Mater. 23, 1647 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Mehta, N. Healy, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Opt. Express 18, 16826 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, M. N. Petrovich, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Opt. Express 17, 18076 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Mehta, N. Healy, T. D. Day, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, in CLEO Science and Innovations, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper CTh1C.2.

Petrovich, M. N.

Powers, D. R.

Rao, A. M.

Reppert, J.

Rice, R.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rice, R. R.

Sazio, P. J. A.

N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, R. He, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Opt. Express 19, 10979 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Sparks, R. He, N. Healy, M. Krishnamurthi, A. C. Peacock, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, Adv. Mater. 23, 1647 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Mehta, N. Healy, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Opt. Express 18, 16826 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, M. N. Petrovich, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Opt. Express 17, 18076 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Mehta, N. Healy, T. D. Day, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, in CLEO Science and Innovations, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper CTh1C.2.

Sharma, S.

Shori, R.

Sparks, J. R.

Stafsudd, O.

Stolen, R.

Trebino, R.

Yazgan-Kokuoz, B.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

J. R. Sparks, R. He, N. Healy, M. Krishnamurthi, A. C. Peacock, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, Adv. Mater. 23, 1647 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 160 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data (1)

H. H. Li, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 9, 561 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

P. Mehta, N. Healy, T. D. Day, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, in CLEO Science and Innovations, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper CTh1C.2.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic1995).

R. G. Hunsperger, Integrated Optics: Theory and Technology, 6th ed. (Springer2009).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) and (b) Effective mode indices and (c) and (d) GVD curves for the LP0n modes of a 5.7 μm (top) and 1.7 μm (bottom) diameter core fiber.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Normalized output spectra from the 5.7 μm core fiber illustrating the effects of higher-order mode interaction (labeled in the legend). Spectra are offset for clarity.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simulated spectra (solid curves) compared to experimental spectra obtained for fixed launch conditions (dashed curves). Top: 5.7 μm core fiber with (a) tight focus, 95% in LP01; (b) optimum focus, 98.7% in LP01; and (c) large focus, 95% in LP01. Bottom: as above, but for the 1.7 μm core fiber with (d) 95%, (e) 98.5%, and (f) 95% in LP01. Red dotted curves in (a) and (d) are simulations of the LP01 mode only.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Aνz=(β1(ν)β1)Aνtiβ2(ν)22Aνt2+iγ(Rνν|Aν|2+2μνRμν|Aμ|2)Aν12(σf+αl)Aν,ν=1,2,,
Nct=βTPA2hν0(νRνν2|Aν|4+2νμRννRμν|AμAν|2)Ncτc,ν=1,2,,
Rij=|Fi(x,y)|2|Fj(x,y)|2dxdy|Fi(x,y)|2dxdy|Fj(x,y)|2dxdy,

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