Abstract

We theoretically consider infrared-driven hyperbolic metamaterials able to spatially filter terahertz (THz) radiation. The metamaterial is a slab made of alternating semiconductor and dielectric layers whose homogenized uniaxial response, at THz frequencies, shows principal permittivities of different signs. The gap provided by metamaterial hyperbolic dispersion allows the slab to stop spatial frequencies within a bandwidth tunable by changing the infrared radiation intensity. We numerically prove the device functionality by resorting to full wave simulation coupled to the dynamics of charge carries photoexcited by infrared radiation in semiconductor layers.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and D. Averitt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 062511 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. L. Chan, H. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 213511 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. Shen, M. Massaouti, M. Gokkavas, J. Manceau, E. Ozbay, M. Kafesaki, T. Koschny, S. Tzortzakis, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 037403 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, Nature 444, 597 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, P. Kolinko, and P. Rye, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2244 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Z. Jacob, L. V. Alekseyev, and E. Narimanov, Opt. Express 14, 8247 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Schurig and D. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2215 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. V. Alekseyev, E. E. Narimanov, T. Tumkur, H. Li, Y. A. Barnakov, and M. A. Noginov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 131107 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. Spinozzi and A. Ciattoni, Opt. Mat. Express 1, 732 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Garmire and A. Kost, Nonlinear Optics in Semiconductors I (Academic1999).
  12. J. Elser, V. A. Podolskiya, I. Salakhutdinov, and I. Avrutsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191109 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Ciattoni and E. Spinozzi, Phys. Rev. A 85, 043806 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

A. Ciattoni and E. Spinozzi, Phys. Rev. A 85, 043806 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

E. Spinozzi and A. Ciattoni, Opt. Mat. Express 1, 732 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Shen, M. Massaouti, M. Gokkavas, J. Manceau, E. Ozbay, M. Kafesaki, T. Koschny, S. Tzortzakis, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 037403 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

L. V. Alekseyev, E. E. Narimanov, T. Tumkur, H. Li, Y. A. Barnakov, and M. A. Noginov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 131107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

W. L. Chan, H. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 062511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Elser, V. A. Podolskiya, I. Salakhutdinov, and I. Avrutsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and D. Averitt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, Nature 444, 597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jacob, L. V. Alekseyev, and E. Narimanov, Opt. Express 14, 8247 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, P. Kolinko, and P. Rye, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2244 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

D. Schurig and D. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Alekseyev, L. V.

L. V. Alekseyev, E. E. Narimanov, T. Tumkur, H. Li, Y. A. Barnakov, and M. A. Noginov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 131107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jacob, L. V. Alekseyev, and E. Narimanov, Opt. Express 14, 8247 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Andreev, G. O.

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 062511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, D.

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and D. Averitt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

H. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, Nature 444, 597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Avrutsky, I.

J. Elser, V. A. Podolskiya, I. Salakhutdinov, and I. Avrutsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barnakov, Y. A.

L. V. Alekseyev, E. E. Narimanov, T. Tumkur, H. Li, Y. A. Barnakov, and M. A. Noginov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 131107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Basov, D. N.

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 062511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brener, I.

W. L. Chan, H. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chan, W. L.

W. L. Chan, H. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

W. L. Chan, H. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, Nature 444, 597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. Y.

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 062511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ciattoni, A.

A. Ciattoni and E. Spinozzi, Phys. Rev. A 85, 043806 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Spinozzi and A. Ciattoni, Opt. Mat. Express 1, 732 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cich, M. J.

W. L. Chan, H. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Driscoll, T.

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 062511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Elser, J.

J. Elser, V. A. Podolskiya, I. Salakhutdinov, and I. Avrutsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Garmire, E.

E. Garmire and A. Kost, Nonlinear Optics in Semiconductors I (Academic1999).

Gokkavas, M.

N. Shen, M. Massaouti, M. Gokkavas, J. Manceau, E. Ozbay, M. Kafesaki, T. Koschny, S. Tzortzakis, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 037403 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

H. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, Nature 444, 597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Highstrete, C.

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and D. Averitt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jacob, Z.

Jokerst, N. M.

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 062511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kafesaki, M.

N. Shen, M. Massaouti, M. Gokkavas, J. Manceau, E. Ozbay, M. Kafesaki, T. Koschny, S. Tzortzakis, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 037403 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kolinko, P.

D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, P. Kolinko, and P. Rye, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2244 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koschny, T.

N. Shen, M. Massaouti, M. Gokkavas, J. Manceau, E. Ozbay, M. Kafesaki, T. Koschny, S. Tzortzakis, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 037403 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kost, A.

E. Garmire and A. Kost, Nonlinear Optics in Semiconductors I (Academic1999).

Lee, M.

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and D. Averitt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

L. V. Alekseyev, E. E. Narimanov, T. Tumkur, H. Li, Y. A. Barnakov, and M. A. Noginov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 131107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Manceau, J.

N. Shen, M. Massaouti, M. Gokkavas, J. Manceau, E. Ozbay, M. Kafesaki, T. Koschny, S. Tzortzakis, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 037403 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Massaouti, M.

N. Shen, M. Massaouti, M. Gokkavas, J. Manceau, E. Ozbay, M. Kafesaki, T. Koschny, S. Tzortzakis, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 037403 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D. M.

W. L. Chan, H. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mock, J. J.

D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, P. Kolinko, and P. Rye, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2244 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Narimanov, E.

Narimanov, E. E.

L. V. Alekseyev, E. E. Narimanov, T. Tumkur, H. Li, Y. A. Barnakov, and M. A. Noginov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 131107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Noginov, M. A.

L. V. Alekseyev, E. E. Narimanov, T. Tumkur, H. Li, Y. A. Barnakov, and M. A. Noginov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 131107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ozbay, E.

N. Shen, M. Massaouti, M. Gokkavas, J. Manceau, E. Ozbay, M. Kafesaki, T. Koschny, S. Tzortzakis, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 037403 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

H. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, Nature 444, 597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and D. Averitt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Palit, S.

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 062511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Podolskiya, V. A.

J. Elser, V. A. Podolskiya, I. Salakhutdinov, and I. Avrutsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rye, P.

D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, P. Kolinko, and P. Rye, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2244 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Salakhutdinov, I.

J. Elser, V. A. Podolskiya, I. Salakhutdinov, and I. Avrutsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schurig, D.

D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, P. Kolinko, and P. Rye, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2244 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig and D. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shen, N.

N. Shen, M. Massaouti, M. Gokkavas, J. Manceau, E. Ozbay, M. Kafesaki, T. Koschny, S. Tzortzakis, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 037403 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 062511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, P. Kolinko, and P. Rye, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2244 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig and D. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

N. Shen, M. Massaouti, M. Gokkavas, J. Manceau, E. Ozbay, M. Kafesaki, T. Koschny, S. Tzortzakis, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 037403 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Spinozzi, E.

A. Ciattoni and E. Spinozzi, Phys. Rev. A 85, 043806 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Spinozzi and A. Ciattoni, Opt. Mat. Express 1, 732 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

W. L. Chan, H. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and D. Averitt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, Nature 444, 597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tumkur, T.

L. V. Alekseyev, E. E. Narimanov, T. Tumkur, H. Li, Y. A. Barnakov, and M. A. Noginov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 131107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tzortzakis, S.

N. Shen, M. Massaouti, M. Gokkavas, J. Manceau, E. Ozbay, M. Kafesaki, T. Koschny, S. Tzortzakis, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 037403 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zide, J. M. O.

H. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, Nature 444, 597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 062511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Chan, H. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, P. Kolinko, and P. Rye, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2244 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig and D. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Alekseyev, E. E. Narimanov, T. Tumkur, H. Li, Y. A. Barnakov, and M. A. Noginov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 131107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Elser, V. A. Podolskiya, I. Salakhutdinov, and I. Avrutsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

H. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, Nature 444, 597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Mat. Express (1)

E. Spinozzi and A. Ciattoni, Opt. Mat. Express 1, 732 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

A. Ciattoni and E. Spinozzi, Phys. Rev. A 85, 043806 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and D. Averitt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Shen, M. Massaouti, M. Gokkavas, J. Manceau, E. Ozbay, M. Kafesaki, T. Koschny, S. Tzortzakis, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 037403 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

E. Garmire and A. Kost, Nonlinear Optics in Semiconductors I (Academic1999).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Layered metamaterial setup together with THz (TH) and infrared (IR) plane waves geometry.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Terahertz homogenized slab permittivities ϵx(ωTH) and ϵz(ωTH) as functions of the normalized local optical intensity of the infrared field.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Reflectivity R, (b) transmissivity T at the wavelength λTH=23.08μm as functions of the THz incidence angle θ for a homogenized slab of thickness L=9.23μm and permittivities of Fig. 1 at three different local infrared intensities I(IR) and, (c) THz hyperbolic dispersion curves for the three cases of panels (a) and (b). The hyperbola vertex is at kx=kV=(2π/λTH)|ϵz|.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

THz transmissivity R and reflectivity T of the metamaterial of Fig. 1, evaluated trough full waves simulations, for three different values of the optical intensity Ii(IR) of the incident infrared plane wave.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Nt=ϵ02Im[ϵsc(ωIR)]|E(IR)|2NτRBN2,
ϵsc(ωIR)=(nIR+δn0N0N)2+inIRcωIRA(N0N),
N=12τRB[(1+W)+(1+W)2+4τRBN0W],
ϵsc(ωTH)=ϵsc(0)(ωTH)+iϵ0(e2τ/m*)NωTH(1iωTHτ),

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