Abstract

Double polarization electro-optic beam combiners based on a Ti:diffusion lithium niobate waveguide have been developed for mid-infrared applications. A monochromatic rejection ratio of up to 33 dB at λ=3.39μm was obtained, as well as wideband fringes showing low dispersion. In a first part, studying the fringe contrast as a function of waveguide width, we found a compromise among transmission, signal-to-noise ratio, and fringe contrast, depending on the single-mode behavior of the waveguides. We will show that both polarizations are guided, and at least 70% and 90% contrast is achieved, respectively, in TE and TM with a 400 nm wideband light centered at 3.39 μm. After choosing the optimal combiner and designing the electrodes, we studied the electro-optic response of the device, using a monochromatic source and scanning the fringe, by external as well as internal modulation, in order to determine the rejection ratio and the voltage needed to cover half a fringe (Vπ) voltage for both TE and TM polarizations.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. F. Knacke and W. Kraetschmer, Astron. Astrophys. 92, 281 (1980).
  2. D. Sudarsky, A. Burrows, and I. Hubeny, Astrophys. J. 588, 1121 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Visser, V. Geers, C. Dullemond, J.-C. Augereau, K. Pontoppidan, and E. van Dishoeck, Astron. Astrophys. 466, 229 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Heidmann, O. Caballero, A. Nolot, M. Gineys, T. Moulin, A. Delboulbé, L. Jocou, J.-B. L. Bouquin, J.-P. Berger, and G. Martin, Proc. SPIE 8071, 807108 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H.-K. Hsiao, K. Winick, J. Monnier, and J.-P. Berger, Opt. Express 17, 18489 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, M. Tsuchiya, and M. Izutsu, in ECOC 2005. 31st European Conference on Optical Communication, 2005 (2005), Vol. 4, pp. 841–842.
  7. N. Grossard, B. Pedron, J. Hauden, and H. Porte, in JNOG Proceedings, ME7 (2007), pp. 110–112.
  8. V. C. du Foresto, G. Perrin, and M. Boccas, Astron. Astrophys. 293, 278 (1995).
  9. A. Rodenas, G. Martin, B. Arezki, N. D. Psaila, G. Jose, A. Jha, L. Labadie, P. Kern, A. K. Kar, and R. R. Thomson, Opt. Lett. 37, 392 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Heidmann, A. Delboulbé, T. Moulin, G. Ulliac, N. Courjal, and G. Martin, in CLEO/Europe and EQEC 2011, Conference Digest (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper JSIII25.

2012

2011

S. Heidmann, O. Caballero, A. Nolot, M. Gineys, T. Moulin, A. Delboulbé, L. Jocou, J.-B. L. Bouquin, J.-P. Berger, and G. Martin, Proc. SPIE 8071, 807108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009

2007

R. Visser, V. Geers, C. Dullemond, J.-C. Augereau, K. Pontoppidan, and E. van Dishoeck, Astron. Astrophys. 466, 229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2003

D. Sudarsky, A. Burrows, and I. Hubeny, Astrophys. J. 588, 1121 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1995

V. C. du Foresto, G. Perrin, and M. Boccas, Astron. Astrophys. 293, 278 (1995).

1980

R. F. Knacke and W. Kraetschmer, Astron. Astrophys. 92, 281 (1980).

Arezki, B.

Augereau, J.-C.

R. Visser, V. Geers, C. Dullemond, J.-C. Augereau, K. Pontoppidan, and E. van Dishoeck, Astron. Astrophys. 466, 229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Berger, J.-P.

S. Heidmann, O. Caballero, A. Nolot, M. Gineys, T. Moulin, A. Delboulbé, L. Jocou, J.-B. L. Bouquin, J.-P. Berger, and G. Martin, Proc. SPIE 8071, 807108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H.-K. Hsiao, K. Winick, J. Monnier, and J.-P. Berger, Opt. Express 17, 18489 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boccas, M.

V. C. du Foresto, G. Perrin, and M. Boccas, Astron. Astrophys. 293, 278 (1995).

Bouquin, J.-B. L.

S. Heidmann, O. Caballero, A. Nolot, M. Gineys, T. Moulin, A. Delboulbé, L. Jocou, J.-B. L. Bouquin, J.-P. Berger, and G. Martin, Proc. SPIE 8071, 807108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, A.

D. Sudarsky, A. Burrows, and I. Hubeny, Astrophys. J. 588, 1121 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Caballero, O.

S. Heidmann, O. Caballero, A. Nolot, M. Gineys, T. Moulin, A. Delboulbé, L. Jocou, J.-B. L. Bouquin, J.-P. Berger, and G. Martin, Proc. SPIE 8071, 807108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Courjal, N.

S. Heidmann, A. Delboulbé, T. Moulin, G. Ulliac, N. Courjal, and G. Martin, in CLEO/Europe and EQEC 2011, Conference Digest (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper JSIII25.

Delboulbé, A.

S. Heidmann, O. Caballero, A. Nolot, M. Gineys, T. Moulin, A. Delboulbé, L. Jocou, J.-B. L. Bouquin, J.-P. Berger, and G. Martin, Proc. SPIE 8071, 807108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Heidmann, A. Delboulbé, T. Moulin, G. Ulliac, N. Courjal, and G. Martin, in CLEO/Europe and EQEC 2011, Conference Digest (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper JSIII25.

du Foresto, V. C.

V. C. du Foresto, G. Perrin, and M. Boccas, Astron. Astrophys. 293, 278 (1995).

Dullemond, C.

R. Visser, V. Geers, C. Dullemond, J.-C. Augereau, K. Pontoppidan, and E. van Dishoeck, Astron. Astrophys. 466, 229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Geers, V.

R. Visser, V. Geers, C. Dullemond, J.-C. Augereau, K. Pontoppidan, and E. van Dishoeck, Astron. Astrophys. 466, 229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gineys, M.

S. Heidmann, O. Caballero, A. Nolot, M. Gineys, T. Moulin, A. Delboulbé, L. Jocou, J.-B. L. Bouquin, J.-P. Berger, and G. Martin, Proc. SPIE 8071, 807108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Grossard, N.

N. Grossard, B. Pedron, J. Hauden, and H. Porte, in JNOG Proceedings, ME7 (2007), pp. 110–112.

Hauden, J.

N. Grossard, B. Pedron, J. Hauden, and H. Porte, in JNOG Proceedings, ME7 (2007), pp. 110–112.

Heidmann, S.

S. Heidmann, O. Caballero, A. Nolot, M. Gineys, T. Moulin, A. Delboulbé, L. Jocou, J.-B. L. Bouquin, J.-P. Berger, and G. Martin, Proc. SPIE 8071, 807108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Heidmann, A. Delboulbé, T. Moulin, G. Ulliac, N. Courjal, and G. Martin, in CLEO/Europe and EQEC 2011, Conference Digest (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper JSIII25.

Hsiao, H.-K.

Hubeny, I.

D. Sudarsky, A. Burrows, and I. Hubeny, Astrophys. J. 588, 1121 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Izutsu, M.

T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, M. Tsuchiya, and M. Izutsu, in ECOC 2005. 31st European Conference on Optical Communication, 2005 (2005), Vol. 4, pp. 841–842.

Jha, A.

Jocou, L.

S. Heidmann, O. Caballero, A. Nolot, M. Gineys, T. Moulin, A. Delboulbé, L. Jocou, J.-B. L. Bouquin, J.-P. Berger, and G. Martin, Proc. SPIE 8071, 807108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jose, G.

Kar, A. K.

Kawanishi, T.

T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, M. Tsuchiya, and M. Izutsu, in ECOC 2005. 31st European Conference on Optical Communication, 2005 (2005), Vol. 4, pp. 841–842.

Kern, P.

Knacke, R. F.

R. F. Knacke and W. Kraetschmer, Astron. Astrophys. 92, 281 (1980).

Kraetschmer, W.

R. F. Knacke and W. Kraetschmer, Astron. Astrophys. 92, 281 (1980).

Labadie, L.

Martin, G.

A. Rodenas, G. Martin, B. Arezki, N. D. Psaila, G. Jose, A. Jha, L. Labadie, P. Kern, A. K. Kar, and R. R. Thomson, Opt. Lett. 37, 392 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Heidmann, O. Caballero, A. Nolot, M. Gineys, T. Moulin, A. Delboulbé, L. Jocou, J.-B. L. Bouquin, J.-P. Berger, and G. Martin, Proc. SPIE 8071, 807108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Heidmann, A. Delboulbé, T. Moulin, G. Ulliac, N. Courjal, and G. Martin, in CLEO/Europe and EQEC 2011, Conference Digest (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper JSIII25.

Monnier, J.

Moulin, T.

S. Heidmann, O. Caballero, A. Nolot, M. Gineys, T. Moulin, A. Delboulbé, L. Jocou, J.-B. L. Bouquin, J.-P. Berger, and G. Martin, Proc. SPIE 8071, 807108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Heidmann, A. Delboulbé, T. Moulin, G. Ulliac, N. Courjal, and G. Martin, in CLEO/Europe and EQEC 2011, Conference Digest (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper JSIII25.

Nolot, A.

S. Heidmann, O. Caballero, A. Nolot, M. Gineys, T. Moulin, A. Delboulbé, L. Jocou, J.-B. L. Bouquin, J.-P. Berger, and G. Martin, Proc. SPIE 8071, 807108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pedron, B.

N. Grossard, B. Pedron, J. Hauden, and H. Porte, in JNOG Proceedings, ME7 (2007), pp. 110–112.

Perrin, G.

V. C. du Foresto, G. Perrin, and M. Boccas, Astron. Astrophys. 293, 278 (1995).

Pontoppidan, K.

R. Visser, V. Geers, C. Dullemond, J.-C. Augereau, K. Pontoppidan, and E. van Dishoeck, Astron. Astrophys. 466, 229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Porte, H.

N. Grossard, B. Pedron, J. Hauden, and H. Porte, in JNOG Proceedings, ME7 (2007), pp. 110–112.

Psaila, N. D.

Rodenas, A.

Sakamoto, T.

T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, M. Tsuchiya, and M. Izutsu, in ECOC 2005. 31st European Conference on Optical Communication, 2005 (2005), Vol. 4, pp. 841–842.

Sudarsky, D.

D. Sudarsky, A. Burrows, and I. Hubeny, Astrophys. J. 588, 1121 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, R. R.

Tsuchiya, M.

T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, M. Tsuchiya, and M. Izutsu, in ECOC 2005. 31st European Conference on Optical Communication, 2005 (2005), Vol. 4, pp. 841–842.

Ulliac, G.

S. Heidmann, A. Delboulbé, T. Moulin, G. Ulliac, N. Courjal, and G. Martin, in CLEO/Europe and EQEC 2011, Conference Digest (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper JSIII25.

van Dishoeck, E.

R. Visser, V. Geers, C. Dullemond, J.-C. Augereau, K. Pontoppidan, and E. van Dishoeck, Astron. Astrophys. 466, 229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Visser, R.

R. Visser, V. Geers, C. Dullemond, J.-C. Augereau, K. Pontoppidan, and E. van Dishoeck, Astron. Astrophys. 466, 229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Winick, K.

Astron. Astrophys.

R. F. Knacke and W. Kraetschmer, Astron. Astrophys. 92, 281 (1980).

R. Visser, V. Geers, C. Dullemond, J.-C. Augereau, K. Pontoppidan, and E. van Dishoeck, Astron. Astrophys. 466, 229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. C. du Foresto, G. Perrin, and M. Boccas, Astron. Astrophys. 293, 278 (1995).

Astrophys. J.

D. Sudarsky, A. Burrows, and I. Hubeny, Astrophys. J. 588, 1121 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

S. Heidmann, O. Caballero, A. Nolot, M. Gineys, T. Moulin, A. Delboulbé, L. Jocou, J.-B. L. Bouquin, J.-P. Berger, and G. Martin, Proc. SPIE 8071, 807108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. Heidmann, A. Delboulbé, T. Moulin, G. Ulliac, N. Courjal, and G. Martin, in CLEO/Europe and EQEC 2011, Conference Digest (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper JSIII25.

T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, M. Tsuchiya, and M. Izutsu, in ECOC 2005. 31st European Conference on Optical Communication, 2005 (2005), Vol. 4, pp. 841–842.

N. Grossard, B. Pedron, J. Hauden, and H. Porte, in JNOG Proceedings, ME7 (2007), pp. 110–112.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Polychromatic fringe packets obtained in TE and TM modes with a 12-m-wide Y junction. The TE contrast obtained (79%) is lower than the TM one (91%) because the TE guidance is not as single mode as the TM one.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Top: contrast of fringes and SNR relative to waveguide width. Circles and solid curves correspond to contrast, and triangles and dotted curves to SNR. Bottom: bandwidth relative to waveguide width (in both cases; TE, open symbols; TM, solid symbols).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Monochromatic fringes obtained by external modulation in TE and TM polarizations. Top: the bottom 103 line corresponds to the noise level. Bottom: the 0.027 line corresponds to the noise level, which is comparatively higher than in the TE polarization.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

External modulation and on-chip modulation in the TE (left) and TM (right) modes with monochromatic light.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I=I1+I2+2·I1·I2·V·cos(ϕ),
V=Vatm·Vinstr·Vsource,
ϕ(x)=ϕ0+2πσ(xx0+neffΔL)+Δβ·L1,
Icorr=1+Vinstr=1+II1I22·I1·I2.

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