Abstract

Second harmonic generation (SHG) is a well-established optical modality widely used in biomedical optics to image collagen based tissues. The coherent signal of the forward direction SHG produces a high resolution image that can resolve individual fibers (groups of fibrils). In highly ordered collagen lamellae, such as in the corneal stroma, it is important to determine the orientation of the fibers as they contribute significantly to the biomechanics of the tissue. However, due to the crimped structure of the fibers, it is challenging to robustly determine their orientation using an independent computational method, compared to the straight fibers problem. Previous work in the field used the polarization of the fundamental or other techniques involving a more manual selection of the orientation, in order to differentiate between various directions in corneal structures. Yet those lack accuracy and independency. We present a robust independent technique to determine the orientation of the fibers in the corneal structure. The experimental results presented here, taken from different lamellae, demonstrate strongly the correct orientation.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. H. Ballard, Pattern Recognition 13, 111 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Illingworth and J. Kittler, Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. 44, 87 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, V. Petegnief, G. Soria, I. Amat-Roldan, D. Artigas, A. M. Planas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, Opt. Express 17, 14418 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, Biophys. J. 88, 1377 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. A. Rao, M. R. Mehta, and K. C. Toussaint, Opt. Express 17, 14534 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. A. R. Rao, M. R. Mehta, S. Leithem, and J. K. C. Toussaint, Opt. Lett. 34, 3779 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Sivaguru, S. Durgam, R. Ambekar, D. Luedtke, G. Fried, A. Stewart, and K. C. Toussaint, Opt. Express 18, 24983 (2010).
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  8. S. Hayes, C. Boote, J. Lewis, J. Sheppard, M. Abahussin, A. J. Quantock, C. Purslow, M. Votruba, and K. M. Meek, Anatom. Rec. 290, 1542 (2007).
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  9. K. M. Meek and C. Boote, Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 28, 369 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (4)

2007 (1)

S. Hayes, C. Boote, J. Lewis, J. Sheppard, M. Abahussin, A. J. Quantock, C. Purslow, M. Votruba, and K. M. Meek, Anatom. Rec. 290, 1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, Biophys. J. 88, 1377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. M. Meek and C. Boote, Exp. Eye Res. 78, 503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

J. Illingworth and J. Kittler, Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. 44, 87 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

D. H. Ballard, Pattern Recognition 13, 111 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Abahussin, M.

S. Hayes, C. Boote, J. Lewis, J. Sheppard, M. Abahussin, A. J. Quantock, C. Purslow, M. Votruba, and K. M. Meek, Anatom. Rec. 290, 1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Amat-Roldan, I.

Ambekar, R.

Artigas, D.

Ballard, D. H.

D. H. Ballard, Pattern Recognition 13, 111 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Boote, C.

K. M. Meek and C. Boote, Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 28, 369 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Hayes, C. Boote, J. Lewis, J. Sheppard, M. Abahussin, A. J. Quantock, C. Purslow, M. Votruba, and K. M. Meek, Anatom. Rec. 290, 1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Meek and C. Boote, Exp. Eye Res. 78, 503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Durgam, S.

Fried, G.

Hayes, S.

S. Hayes, C. Boote, J. Lewis, J. Sheppard, M. Abahussin, A. J. Quantock, C. Purslow, M. Votruba, and K. M. Meek, Anatom. Rec. 290, 1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Illingworth, J.

J. Illingworth and J. Kittler, Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. 44, 87 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kittler, J.

J. Illingworth and J. Kittler, Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. 44, 87 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Leithem, S.

Lewis, J.

S. Hayes, C. Boote, J. Lewis, J. Sheppard, M. Abahussin, A. J. Quantock, C. Purslow, M. Votruba, and K. M. Meek, Anatom. Rec. 290, 1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Loza-Alvarez, P.

Luedtke, D.

Meek, K. M.

K. M. Meek and C. Boote, Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 28, 369 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Hayes, C. Boote, J. Lewis, J. Sheppard, M. Abahussin, A. J. Quantock, C. Purslow, M. Votruba, and K. M. Meek, Anatom. Rec. 290, 1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Meek and C. Boote, Exp. Eye Res. 78, 503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mehta, M. R.

Petegnief, V.

Planas, A. M.

Psilodimitrakopoulos, S.

Purslow, C.

S. Hayes, C. Boote, J. Lewis, J. Sheppard, M. Abahussin, A. J. Quantock, C. Purslow, M. Votruba, and K. M. Meek, Anatom. Rec. 290, 1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Quantock, A. J.

S. Hayes, C. Boote, J. Lewis, J. Sheppard, M. Abahussin, A. J. Quantock, C. Purslow, M. Votruba, and K. M. Meek, Anatom. Rec. 290, 1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rao, R. A.

Rao, R. A. R.

Sheppard, J.

S. Hayes, C. Boote, J. Lewis, J. Sheppard, M. Abahussin, A. J. Quantock, C. Purslow, M. Votruba, and K. M. Meek, Anatom. Rec. 290, 1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sivaguru, M.

Soria, G.

Stewart, A.

Toussaint, J. K. C.

Toussaint, K. C.

Votruba, M.

S. Hayes, C. Boote, J. Lewis, J. Sheppard, M. Abahussin, A. J. Quantock, C. Purslow, M. Votruba, and K. M. Meek, Anatom. Rec. 290, 1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Webb, W. W.

R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, Biophys. J. 88, 1377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R. M.

R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, Biophys. J. 88, 1377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zipfel, W. R.

R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, Biophys. J. 88, 1377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Anatom. Rec. (1)

S. Hayes, C. Boote, J. Lewis, J. Sheppard, M. Abahussin, A. J. Quantock, C. Purslow, M. Votruba, and K. M. Meek, Anatom. Rec. 290, 1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (1)

R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, Biophys. J. 88, 1377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. (1)

J. Illingworth and J. Kittler, Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. 44, 87 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Eye Res. (1)

K. M. Meek and C. Boote, Exp. Eye Res. 78, 503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Pattern Recognition (1)

D. H. Ballard, Pattern Recognition 13, 111 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Retinal Eye Res. (1)

K. M. Meek and C. Boote, Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 28, 369 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Steps of the process performed in order to retrieve the orientation of fibers in cornea lamella. (a) Original second harmonic generation (SHG) image; (b) Filtered FFT image using a band pass filter (BPF) and processed using histogram adjustment and median filter; (c) Radon transform of the FFT transform showing peak at dominant orientation; (d) Plot of x=0 of the Radon transform.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Lamella containing several different orientations of fibers [(a)] and the corresponding angular result obtained using our technique [(b)].

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