Abstract

An all-fiber nanosecond Kerr light gate is described that was constructed using microstructured fibers. The switching voltage for a 20 cm long device is as low as Vπ85V at a 1.06 μm wavelength. The device is fully spliced. The active element is a three-hole fiber provided with internal electrodes in the side-holes and a liquid core of nitrobenzene, which is fully enclosed. This work allows the exploiting of electrically driven liquid-core fibers and demonstrated the removal of the major limitations of Kerr cells in the past, allowing for integration, safe use, and relatively low switching voltage.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2012

2011

2009

2007

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, Nature Photonics 1, 106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

A. Anan’ev, G. Karapetyan, A. Lipovskii, L. Maksimov, V. Polukhin, D. Tagantsev, B. Tatarintsev, A. Vetrov, and O. Yanush, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 1046 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Scolari, T. Alkeskjold, J. Riishede, A. Bjarklev, D. Hermann, A. Anawati, M. Nielsen, and P. Bassi, Opt. Express 13, 7483 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1999

D. Wong, W. Xu, S. Fleming, M. Janos, and K. Lo, Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 235 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1992

1979

R. Hebner and M. Misakian, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 6016 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1975

C. Filippini, J. Phys D: Appl. Phys. 8, 201 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1969

M. A. Duguay and J. W. Hansen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15(6), 192 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1967

A. J. deMaria, D. A. Stetser, and W. H. Glenn, Science 156, 1557 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966

W. Penney and H. Heynau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 257 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1960

1948

W. M. Cady and A. M. Zarem, Nature 162, 528 (1948).
[CrossRef]

1932

W. D. Wright, Proc. Phys. Soc. London 44, 325 (1932).
[CrossRef]

1875

J. Kerr, Philos. Mag. 50, 337 (1875).

Alkeskjold, T.

Anan’ev, A.

A. Anan’ev, G. Karapetyan, A. Lipovskii, L. Maksimov, V. Polukhin, D. Tagantsev, B. Tatarintsev, A. Vetrov, and O. Yanush, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 1046 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Anawati, A.

Bassi, P.

Bjarklev, A.

Cady, W. M.

W. M. Cady and A. M. Zarem, Nature 162, 528 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Carvalho, I.

Chesini, G.

Claesson, A.

P. Jelger, F. Laurell, V. Pasiskevicius, A. Enstrom, A. Claesson, and W. Margulis, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CThO2.

Cordeiro, C.

Cronemeyer, D. C.

deMaria, A. J.

A. J. deMaria, D. A. Stetser, and W. H. Glenn, Science 156, 1557 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Domachuk, P.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, Nature Photonics 1, 106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Duguay, M. A.

M. A. Duguay and J. W. Hansen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15(6), 192 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, Nature Photonics 1, 106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Enstrom, A.

P. Jelger, F. Laurell, V. Pasiskevicius, A. Enstrom, A. Claesson, and W. Margulis, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CThO2.

Filippini, C.

C. Filippini, J. Phys D: Appl. Phys. 8, 201 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Finlayson, N.

Fleming, S.

D. Wong, W. Xu, S. Fleming, M. Janos, and K. Lo, Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 235 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fokine, M.

G. Chesini, C. Cordeiro, C. Matos, M. Fokine, I. Carvalho, and J. Knight, Opt. Express 17, 1660 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Fokine, L. Kjellberg, P. Helander, N. Myrén, L. Norin, H. Olsson, N. Sjödin, and W. Margulis, European Conference on Optical Communications, ECOC04 (2004), paper Tu 4.3.3.

Glenn, W. H.

A. J. deMaria, D. A. Stetser, and W. H. Glenn, Science 156, 1557 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Guedes Valente, L. C.

L. C. Guedes Valente ,Pontificia Univesidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (personal communication,1995).

Hansen, J. W.

M. A. Duguay and J. W. Hansen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15(6), 192 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Hebner, R.

R. Hebner and M. Misakian, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 6016 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Helander, P.

M. Fokine, L. Kjellberg, P. Helander, N. Myrén, L. Norin, H. Olsson, N. Sjödin, and W. Margulis, European Conference on Optical Communications, ECOC04 (2004), paper Tu 4.3.3.

Hermann, D.

Heynau, H.

W. Penney and H. Heynau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 257 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Janos, M.

D. Wong, W. Xu, S. Fleming, M. Janos, and K. Lo, Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 235 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jelger, P.

P. Jelger, M. Stjernström, W. Margulis, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics(Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CMJ3.

P. Jelger, F. Laurell, V. Pasiskevicius, A. Enstrom, A. Claesson, and W. Margulis, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CThO2.

Karapetyan, G.

A. Anan’ev, G. Karapetyan, A. Lipovskii, L. Maksimov, V. Polukhin, D. Tagantsev, B. Tatarintsev, A. Vetrov, and O. Yanush, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 1046 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kashyap, R.

Kerr, J.

J. Kerr, Philos. Mag. 50, 337 (1875).

Kieu, K.

Kjellberg, L.

M. Fokine, L. Kjellberg, P. Helander, N. Myrén, L. Norin, H. Olsson, N. Sjödin, and W. Margulis, European Conference on Optical Communications, ECOC04 (2004), paper Tu 4.3.3.

Knape, H.

Knight, J.

Kriezis, E. E.

Laurell, F.

P. Jelger, F. Laurell, V. Pasiskevicius, A. Enstrom, A. Claesson, and W. Margulis, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CThO2.

P. Jelger, M. Stjernström, W. Margulis, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics(Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CMJ3.

Lipovskii, A.

A. Anan’ev, G. Karapetyan, A. Lipovskii, L. Maksimov, V. Polukhin, D. Tagantsev, B. Tatarintsev, A. Vetrov, and O. Yanush, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 1046 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lo, K.

D. Wong, W. Xu, S. Fleming, M. Janos, and K. Lo, Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 235 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Maksimov, L.

A. Anan’ev, G. Karapetyan, A. Lipovskii, L. Maksimov, V. Polukhin, D. Tagantsev, B. Tatarintsev, A. Vetrov, and O. Yanush, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 1046 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Malmström, M.

Margulis, W.

W. Margulis, Zhangwei Yu, M. Malmström, P. Rugeland, H. Knape, and O. Tarasenko, Appl. Opt. 50, E65 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Fokine, L. Kjellberg, P. Helander, N. Myrén, L. Norin, H. Olsson, N. Sjödin, and W. Margulis, European Conference on Optical Communications, ECOC04 (2004), paper Tu 4.3.3.

P. Jelger, M. Stjernström, W. Margulis, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics(Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CMJ3.

P. Jelger, F. Laurell, V. Pasiskevicius, A. Enstrom, A. Claesson, and W. Margulis, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CThO2.

Matos, C.

Misakian, M.

R. Hebner and M. Misakian, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 6016 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Monat, C.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, Nature Photonics 1, 106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Myrén, N.

M. Fokine, L. Kjellberg, P. Helander, N. Myrén, L. Norin, H. Olsson, N. Sjödin, and W. Margulis, European Conference on Optical Communications, ECOC04 (2004), paper Tu 4.3.3.

Nielsen, M.

Norin, L.

M. Fokine, L. Kjellberg, P. Helander, N. Myrén, L. Norin, H. Olsson, N. Sjödin, and W. Margulis, European Conference on Optical Communications, ECOC04 (2004), paper Tu 4.3.3.

Norwood, R. A.

Olsson, H.

M. Fokine, L. Kjellberg, P. Helander, N. Myrén, L. Norin, H. Olsson, N. Sjödin, and W. Margulis, European Conference on Optical Communications, ECOC04 (2004), paper Tu 4.3.3.

Pasiskevicius, V.

P. Jelger, F. Laurell, V. Pasiskevicius, A. Enstrom, A. Claesson, and W. Margulis, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CThO2.

P. Jelger, M. Stjernström, W. Margulis, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics(Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CMJ3.

Penney, W.

W. Penney and H. Heynau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 257 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

Polukhin, V.

A. Anan’ev, G. Karapetyan, A. Lipovskii, L. Maksimov, V. Polukhin, D. Tagantsev, B. Tatarintsev, A. Vetrov, and O. Yanush, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 1046 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Riishede, J.

Rugeland, P.

Schneebeli, L.

Scolari, L.

Sjödin, N.

M. Fokine, L. Kjellberg, P. Helander, N. Myrén, L. Norin, H. Olsson, N. Sjödin, and W. Margulis, European Conference on Optical Communications, ECOC04 (2004), paper Tu 4.3.3.

Spanberger, L. R.

Stetser, D. A.

A. J. deMaria, D. A. Stetser, and W. H. Glenn, Science 156, 1557 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Stjernström, M.

P. Jelger, M. Stjernström, W. Margulis, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics(Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CMJ3.

Tagantsev, D.

A. Anan’ev, G. Karapetyan, A. Lipovskii, L. Maksimov, V. Polukhin, D. Tagantsev, B. Tatarintsev, A. Vetrov, and O. Yanush, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 1046 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tarasenko, O.

Tatarintsev, B.

A. Anan’ev, G. Karapetyan, A. Lipovskii, L. Maksimov, V. Polukhin, D. Tagantsev, B. Tatarintsev, A. Vetrov, and O. Yanush, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 1046 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tsiboukis, T. D.

Vetrov, A.

A. Anan’ev, G. Karapetyan, A. Lipovskii, L. Maksimov, V. Polukhin, D. Tagantsev, B. Tatarintsev, A. Vetrov, and O. Yanush, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 1046 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wong, D.

D. Wong, W. Xu, S. Fleming, M. Janos, and K. Lo, Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 235 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wright, W. D.

W. D. Wright, Proc. Phys. Soc. London 44, 325 (1932).
[CrossRef]

Xu, W.

D. Wong, W. Xu, S. Fleming, M. Janos, and K. Lo, Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 235 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yanush, O.

A. Anan’ev, G. Karapetyan, A. Lipovskii, L. Maksimov, V. Polukhin, D. Tagantsev, B. Tatarintsev, A. Vetrov, and O. Yanush, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 1046 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Zhangwei

Zarem, A. M.

W. M. Cady and A. M. Zarem, Nature 162, 528 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Zografopoulos, D. C.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. A. Duguay and J. W. Hansen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15(6), 192 (1969).
[CrossRef]

W. Penney and H. Heynau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 257 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

R. Hebner and M. Misakian, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 6016 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

A. Anan’ev, G. Karapetyan, A. Lipovskii, L. Maksimov, V. Polukhin, D. Tagantsev, B. Tatarintsev, A. Vetrov, and O. Yanush, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 1046 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Phys D: Appl. Phys.

C. Filippini, J. Phys D: Appl. Phys. 8, 201 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Nature

W. M. Cady and A. M. Zarem, Nature 162, 528 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Nature Photonics

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, Nature Photonics 1, 106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Fiber Technol.

D. Wong, W. Xu, S. Fleming, M. Janos, and K. Lo, Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 235 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Philos. Mag.

J. Kerr, Philos. Mag. 50, 337 (1875).

Proc. Phys. Soc. London

W. D. Wright, Proc. Phys. Soc. London 44, 325 (1932).
[CrossRef]

Science

A. J. deMaria, D. A. Stetser, and W. H. Glenn, Science 156, 1557 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Fokine, L. Kjellberg, P. Helander, N. Myrén, L. Norin, H. Olsson, N. Sjödin, and W. Margulis, European Conference on Optical Communications, ECOC04 (2004), paper Tu 4.3.3.

P. Jelger, F. Laurell, V. Pasiskevicius, A. Enstrom, A. Claesson, and W. Margulis, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CThO2.

P. Jelger, M. Stjernström, W. Margulis, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics(Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CMJ3.

L. C. Guedes Valente ,Pontificia Univesidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (personal communication,1995).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup. All fiber components are spliced, including the polarizer. The cross-section of the various fibers used in the Kerr cell construction are illustrated. All fibers are 125 μm in diameter. The 400 m fiber delay separates the optical signal from the electrical gating disturbance. Two SMA connectors provide for input and output coupling.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Relative transmission of the 20 cm long component as a function of the wavelength; (b) switching of the Kerr cell with Vπ=85V at a 1.06 μm wavelength.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Response of the Kerr cell for an applied voltage Vπ, V2π, V4π, and V5π respectively (dashed traces=output voltage after the cell); (b) calculation of the response to the electrical pulses at 198 V, 260 V, 426 V, and 506 V, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Voltage dependence of the phase shift induced in the Kerr cell (linear scale); (b) log-log scale. The quadratic dependence expected was only observed at low voltages.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Cross-sectional distribution of the magnitude of the electric field in the 3HF for a voltage bias 1 kV across electrodes; (b) potential distribution across the nitrobenzene core. The potential difference is 115 V between edges.

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