Abstract

Optical fibers have long been recognized as a promising technology for remote sensing of ultrasound. Nonetheless, very little is known about the characteristics of their spatial response, which is significantly affected by the strong acoustic mismatches between the fiber and surrounding medium. In this Letter, a new method is demonstrated for wideband spatial acoustic characterization of optical fibers. The method is based on the excitation of a point-like acoustic source via the opto-acoustic effect, while a miniature fiber sensor is implemented by a π-phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating. Despite the relative complexity of acoustic wave propagation in the fiber, its spatial sensitivity in the high frequency band (6–30 MHz) exhibited an orderly pattern, which can be described by a simple model. This property reveals new possibilities for high-performance imaging using fiber-based ultrasound sensors, where knowledge of the sensor’s spatial sensitivity map is generally required.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2012 (1)

T. Berer, I. A. Veres, H. Grün, J. Bauer-Marschallinger, K. Felbermayer, and P. Burgholzer, J. Biophotonics 5, 518 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

A. Rosenthal, V. Ntziachristos, and D. Razansky, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58, 316 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Rosenthal, D. Razansky, and V. Ntziachristos, Opt. Lett. 36, 1833 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

T. T. Y. Lam, G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, J. H. Chow, and P. De Natale, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Grün, T. Berer, P. Burgholzer, R. Nuster, and G. Paltauf, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2003 (2)

P. Fomitchov and S. Krishnaswamy, Opt. Eng. 42, 956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Betz, G. Thursby, B. Culshaw, and W. J. Staszewski, Smart Mater. Struc. 12, 122 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

G. J. Diebold and T. Sun, Acustica 80, 339 (1994).

1982 (1)

N. Lagakos, E. U. Schnaus, J. H. Cole, J. J. Ynski, and J. A. Bucarq, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 683 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

J. A. Bucaro, H. D Dardy, and E. F Carome, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1302 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Askins, C. G.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bauer-Marschallinger, J.

T. Berer, I. A. Veres, H. Grün, J. Bauer-Marschallinger, K. Felbermayer, and P. Burgholzer, J. Biophotonics 5, 518 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

Berer, T.

T. Berer, I. A. Veres, H. Grün, J. Bauer-Marschallinger, K. Felbermayer, and P. Burgholzer, J. Biophotonics 5, 518 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Grün, T. Berer, P. Burgholzer, R. Nuster, and G. Paltauf, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Betz, D. C.

D. C. Betz, G. Thursby, B. Culshaw, and W. J. Staszewski, Smart Mater. Struc. 12, 122 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bucaro, J. A.

J. A. Bucaro, H. D Dardy, and E. F Carome, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1302 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Bucarq, J. A.

N. Lagakos, E. U. Schnaus, J. H. Cole, J. J. Ynski, and J. A. Bucarq, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 683 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Burgholzer, P.

T. Berer, I. A. Veres, H. Grün, J. Bauer-Marschallinger, K. Felbermayer, and P. Burgholzer, J. Biophotonics 5, 518 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Grün, T. Berer, P. Burgholzer, R. Nuster, and G. Paltauf, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Carome, E. F

J. A. Bucaro, H. D Dardy, and E. F Carome, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1302 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Chow, J. H.

T. T. Y. Lam, G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, J. H. Chow, and P. De Natale, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cole, J. H.

N. Lagakos, E. U. Schnaus, J. H. Cole, J. J. Ynski, and J. A. Bucarq, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 683 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Culshaw, B.

D. C. Betz, G. Thursby, B. Culshaw, and W. J. Staszewski, Smart Mater. Struc. 12, 122 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dardy, H. D

J. A. Bucaro, H. D Dardy, and E. F Carome, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1302 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Davis, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

De Natale, P.

T. T. Y. Lam, G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, J. H. Chow, and P. De Natale, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Diebold, G. J.

G. J. Diebold and T. Sun, Acustica 80, 339 (1994).

Felbermayer, K.

T. Berer, I. A. Veres, H. Grün, J. Bauer-Marschallinger, K. Felbermayer, and P. Burgholzer, J. Biophotonics 5, 518 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, N. E.

Fomitchov, P.

P. Fomitchov and S. Krishnaswamy, Opt. Eng. 42, 956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Friebele, E. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gagliardi, G.

T. T. Y. Lam, G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, J. H. Chow, and P. De Natale, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gallego, D.

Gavrilov, L. R.

Grün, H.

T. Berer, I. A. Veres, H. Grün, J. Bauer-Marschallinger, K. Felbermayer, and P. Burgholzer, J. Biophotonics 5, 518 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Grün, T. Berer, P. Burgholzer, R. Nuster, and G. Paltauf, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hand, J. W.

Jackson, D. A.

Kersey, A. D.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Koo, K. P.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krishnaswamy, S.

P. Fomitchov and S. Krishnaswamy, Opt. Eng. 42, 956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lagakos, N.

N. Lagakos, E. U. Schnaus, J. H. Cole, J. J. Ynski, and J. A. Bucarq, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 683 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lam, T. T. Y.

T. T. Y. Lam, G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, J. H. Chow, and P. De Natale, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lamela, H.

LeBlanc, M.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ntziachristos, V.

A. Rosenthal, D. Razansky, and V. Ntziachristos, Opt. Lett. 36, 1833 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Rosenthal, V. Ntziachristos, and D. Razansky, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58, 316 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nuster, R.

H. Grün, T. Berer, P. Burgholzer, R. Nuster, and G. Paltauf, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Oraevsky, A.

Paltauf, G.

H. Grün, T. Berer, P. Burgholzer, R. Nuster, and G. Paltauf, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pannell, C. N.

Patrick, H. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Putnam, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Razansky, D.

A. Rosenthal, V. Ntziachristos, and D. Razansky, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58, 316 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Rosenthal, D. Razansky, and V. Ntziachristos, Opt. Lett. 36, 1833 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rosenthal, A.

A. Rosenthal, D. Razansky, and V. Ntziachristos, Opt. Lett. 36, 1833 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Rosenthal, V. Ntziachristos, and D. Razansky, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58, 316 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Salza, M.

T. T. Y. Lam, G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, J. H. Chow, and P. De Natale, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schnaus, E. U.

N. Lagakos, E. U. Schnaus, J. H. Cole, J. J. Ynski, and J. A. Bucarq, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 683 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Staszewski, W. J.

D. C. Betz, G. Thursby, B. Culshaw, and W. J. Staszewski, Smart Mater. Struc. 12, 122 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sun, T.

G. J. Diebold and T. Sun, Acustica 80, 339 (1994).

Thursby, G.

D. C. Betz, G. Thursby, B. Culshaw, and W. J. Staszewski, Smart Mater. Struc. 12, 122 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Veres, I. A.

T. Berer, I. A. Veres, H. Grün, J. Bauer-Marschallinger, K. Felbermayer, and P. Burgholzer, J. Biophotonics 5, 518 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Webb, D. J.

Ynski, J. J.

N. Lagakos, E. U. Schnaus, J. H. Cole, J. J. Ynski, and J. A. Bucarq, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 683 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Acustica (1)

G. J. Diebold and T. Sun, Acustica 80, 339 (1994).

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. Lagakos, E. U. Schnaus, J. H. Cole, J. J. Ynski, and J. A. Bucarq, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 683 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control (1)

A. Rosenthal, V. Ntziachristos, and D. Razansky, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58, 316 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

J. A. Bucaro, H. D Dardy, and E. F Carome, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1302 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

H. Grün, T. Berer, P. Burgholzer, R. Nuster, and G. Paltauf, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Biophotonics (1)

T. Berer, I. A. Veres, H. Grün, J. Bauer-Marschallinger, K. Felbermayer, and P. Burgholzer, J. Biophotonics 5, 518 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

T. T. Y. Lam, G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, J. H. Chow, and P. De Natale, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

P. Fomitchov and S. Krishnaswamy, Opt. Eng. 42, 956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Smart Mater. Struc. (1)

D. C. Betz, G. Thursby, B. Culshaw, and W. J. Staszewski, Smart Mater. Struc. 12, 122 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic side-view illustration of the fiber sensor and the acoustic source (SD, sensitivity distribution of the sensor; FBG, fiber Bragg grating); (b) a cross section of the fiber.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Measured acoustic signal (b) and its corresponding Fourier transform detected for r=1mm for three values of z: 0.5mm, 0, and 0.5 mm. Nominal response is the theoretical spectrum of an ideal optoacoustic spherical source at a distance of 1 mm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Spatial sensitivity map of the sensor for the low-frequency band (0–3 MHz). Each pixel in the image represents the energy of the detected signal for the respective position of the acoustic source. Image was normalized to eliminate the effect of the signal’s decay with distance. Normalization function is shown on top of the image; (b) Delays of the low-passed signals at different distances from the fiber.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Experimental and (b) theoretical sensitivity maps for the high-frequency band [6–30] MHz. Each point represents the maximum of the signal for the respective location of the acoustic source; (c) FWHM of the experimental (circles) and theoretical (solid curve) traces presented in (a) and (b).

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