Abstract

We report on the single-step fabrication of stressed optical waveguides with tubular depressed-refractive-index cladding in phosphate glasses by the use of focused femtosecond hollow laser beams. Tubelike low index regions appear under direct exposure due to material rarefaction following expansion. Strained compacted zones emerged in domains neighboring the tubular track of lower refractive index, and waveguiding occurs mainly within the tube core fabricated by the engineered femtosecond laser beam. The refractive index profile of the optical waveguide was reconstructed from the measured transmitted near-field intensity.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2011 (1)

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2008 (3)

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Yu. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, Phys. Rev. B 77, 104205(2008).
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G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, N. Huot, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, Opt. Express 16, 5481 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernández-Navarro, A. García-Navarro, V. Diez-Blanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (3)

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1998 (1)

1996 (1)

Ams, M.

Armengol, J.

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernández-Navarro, A. García-Navarro, V. Diez-Blanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Audouard, E.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Yu. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, Phys. Rev. B 77, 104205(2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, N. Huot, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, Opt. Express 16, 5481 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Benayas, A.

Bhuyan, M. K.

M. K. Bhuyan, F. Courvoisier, P. A. Lacourt, M. Jacquot, R. Salut, L. Furfaro, and J. M. Dudley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 081102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bulgakova, N. M.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Yu. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, Phys. Rev. B 77, 104205(2008).
[CrossRef]

Burakov, I. M.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Yu. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, Phys. Rev. B 77, 104205(2008).
[CrossRef]

Caccavale, F.

Calmano, T.

Cantelar, E.

Chan, J. W.

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2371 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chattrapiban, N.

Chen, F.

Cofield, D.

Courvoisier, F.

M. K. Bhuyan, F. Courvoisier, P. A. Lacourt, M. Jacquot, R. Salut, L. Furfaro, and J. M. Dudley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 081102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Davis, K. M.

Diez-Blanco, V.

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernández-Navarro, A. García-Navarro, V. Diez-Blanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dudley, J. M.

M. K. Bhuyan, F. Courvoisier, P. A. Lacourt, M. Jacquot, R. Salut, L. Furfaro, and J. M. Dudley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 081102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

Fernández-Navarro, J. M.

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernández-Navarro, A. García-Navarro, V. Diez-Blanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fuerbach, A.

Furfaro, L.

M. K. Bhuyan, F. Courvoisier, P. A. Lacourt, M. Jacquot, R. Salut, L. Furfaro, and J. M. Dudley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 081102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

García-Navarro, A.

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernández-Navarro, A. García-Navarro, V. Diez-Blanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gianesin, M.

Glatzel, U.

T. Gorelik, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and U. Glatzel, Appl. Phys. A 76, 309 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1996).

Gorelik, T.

T. Gorelik, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and U. Glatzel, Appl. Phys. A 76, 309 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gross, S.

Hashimoto, T.

Hayden, J. S.

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2371 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hertel, I. V.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Yu. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, Phys. Rev. B 77, 104205(2008).
[CrossRef]

Hill, W. T.

Hirao, K.

Huber, G.

Huot, N.

Husakou, A.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Yu. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, Phys. Rev. B 77, 104205(2008).
[CrossRef]

Huser, T. R.

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2371 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jacinto, C.

Jacquot, M.

M. K. Bhuyan, F. Courvoisier, P. A. Lacourt, M. Jacquot, R. Salut, L. Furfaro, and J. M. Dudley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 081102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jaque, D.

Jaque, F.

Juodkazis, S.

Kaminskii, A. A.

Krol, D. M.

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2371 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuan, K.

Lacourt, P. A.

M. K. Bhuyan, F. Courvoisier, P. A. Lacourt, M. Jacquot, R. Salut, L. Furfaro, and J. M. Dudley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 081102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lamela, J.

Lancaster, D. G.

Lopez, C.

Mansour, I.

Mauclair, C.

Mermillod-Blondin, A.

C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, N. Huot, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, Opt. Express 16, 5481 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Yu. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, Phys. Rev. B 77, 104205(2008).
[CrossRef]

Meshcheryakov, Yu. P.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Yu. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, Phys. Rev. B 77, 104205(2008).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

Monro, T. M.

Morikawa, J.

Nolte, S.

T. Gorelik, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and U. Glatzel, Appl. Phys. A 76, 309 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Orie, A.

Petermann, K.

Richardson, K.

Richardson, M.

Risbud, S. H.

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2371 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rodenas, A.

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, E. A.

Rosenfeld, A.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Yu. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, Phys. Rev. B 77, 104205(2008).
[CrossRef]

Roso, L.

Roy, R.

Salut, R.

M. K. Bhuyan, F. Courvoisier, P. A. Lacourt, M. Jacquot, R. Salut, L. Furfaro, and J. M. Dudley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 081102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sanz, O.

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernández-Navarro, A. García-Navarro, V. Diez-Blanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Segato, F.

Siebenmorgen, J.

Siegel, J.

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernández-Navarro, A. García-Navarro, V. Diez-Blanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Silva, W. F.

Solis, J.

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernández-Navarro, A. García-Navarro, V. Diez-Blanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stoian, R.

C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, N. Huot, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, Opt. Express 16, 5481 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Yu. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, Phys. Rev. B 77, 104205(2008).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Tan, Y.

Torchia, G. A.

Tuennermann, A.

T. Gorelik, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and U. Glatzel, Appl. Phys. A 76, 309 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vazquez de Aldana, J. R.

Vázquez de Aldana, J. R.

Vega, F.

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernández-Navarro, A. García-Navarro, V. Diez-Blanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Will, M.

T. Gorelik, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and U. Glatzel, Appl. Phys. A 76, 309 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Withford, M. J.

Zoubir, A.

Appl. Phys. A (1)

T. Gorelik, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and U. Glatzel, Appl. Phys. A 76, 309 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Bhuyan, F. Courvoisier, P. A. Lacourt, M. Jacquot, R. Salut, L. Furfaro, and J. M. Dudley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 081102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2371 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernández-Navarro, A. García-Navarro, V. Diez-Blanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Yu. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, Phys. Rev. B 77, 104205(2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1996).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic representation of the experimental setup. The inset represents the spatial profile of the higher-order nondiffracting Bessel beam located between the spatial light modulator (SLM) and the focusing lens.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Phase mask employed for producing a Bessel beam with n=10 and r0=0.8mm. (b) Transverse intensity distribution at the focus of lens in air. The scale bar is 13 μm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Phase contrast microscope (PCM) image of the waveguide with tubular depressed-refractive-index cladding (side view). Note the negative index change (white color) in the lateral zones. (b) Optical transmission micrograph of the obtained tubular structure (end view). (c) Microscope image of the tubular track between crossed polarizers. The dashed blue circle marks the position of the track. The field of view is the same. The scale bar is 6 μm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Near-field mode of the tubular waveguide injected by 800 nm CW laser radiation. (b) Calculated relative refractive index distribution of the waveguide corresponding to the near-field mode presented in (a).

Equations (2)

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Tn(r,θ)=exp(inθ)exp(i2πr0r),
En(r,θ,z)=Jn(2πr0r)exp(inθ)exp(iβz),

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