Abstract

We propose and demonstrate a visual, all-optical pressure-measuring device composed of a flexible membrane dilating toward a photonic crystal slab. Due to its transparency and capability to be miniaturized, it may be integrated on the inner side of an artificial lens and directly measure the eye’s intraocular pressure. Using crossed polarization filters for the readout process, we obtain a contrast enhancement for the circular contact area of the membrane with the photonic crystal slab. We demonstrate that the visible circle increases as a function of pressure.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2011 (1)

2010 (2)

Y. Nazirizadeh, U. Bog, S. Sekula, T. Mappes, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, Opt. Express 18, 19120 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. L. Privorotskaya, C. J. Choi, B. T. Cunningham, and W. P. King, Sens. Actuat. A 161, 66 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

T. Kakaday, A. W. Hewitt, N. H. Voelcker, J. S. J. Li, and J. E. Craig, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 992 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

W. Mokwa, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, R47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ying, J. Xia, and S. H. Foulger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, J. Biomol. Screen. 9, 481 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. Fan and J. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B 65, 1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. M. Lupton, B. J. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, M. J. Jory, and W. L. Barnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1990 (1)

1929 (1)

W. D. Wright, Trans. Opt. Soc. 30, 141 (1929).
[CrossRef]

Bagby, J. S.

Baird, C.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, J. Biomol. Screen. 9, 481 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

J. M. Lupton, B. J. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, M. J. Jory, and W. L. Barnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bocksrocker, T.

Bog, U.

Choi, C. J.

N. L. Privorotskaya, C. J. Choi, B. T. Cunningham, and W. P. King, Sens. Actuat. A 161, 66 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Craig, J. E.

T. Kakaday, A. W. Hewitt, N. H. Voelcker, J. S. J. Li, and J. E. Craig, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 992 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, B. T.

N. L. Privorotskaya, C. J. Choi, B. T. Cunningham, and W. P. King, Sens. Actuat. A 161, 66 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, J. Biomol. Screen. 9, 481 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

S. Fan and J. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B 65, 1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fine, E.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, J. Biomol. Screen. 9, 481 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Foulger, S. H.

Y. Ying, J. Xia, and S. H. Foulger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Genick, C.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, J. Biomol. Screen. 9, 481 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gerken, M.

Gerstenmaier, J.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, J. Biomol. Screen. 9, 481 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Geyer, U.

Hauss, J.

Hewitt, A. W.

T. Kakaday, A. W. Hewitt, N. H. Voelcker, J. S. J. Li, and J. E. Craig, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 992 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J.

S. Fan and J. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B 65, 1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jory, M. J.

J. M. Lupton, B. J. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, M. J. Jory, and W. L. Barnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kakaday, T.

T. Kakaday, A. W. Hewitt, N. H. Voelcker, J. S. J. Li, and J. E. Craig, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 992 (2009).
[CrossRef]

King, W. P.

N. L. Privorotskaya, C. J. Choi, B. T. Cunningham, and W. P. King, Sens. Actuat. A 161, 66 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kley, E.-B.

Laing, L.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, J. Biomol. Screen. 9, 481 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lemmer, U.

Li, J. S. J.

T. Kakaday, A. W. Hewitt, N. H. Voelcker, J. S. J. Li, and J. E. Craig, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 992 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, P.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, J. Biomol. Screen. 9, 481 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, B.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, J. Biomol. Screen. 9, 481 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lupton, J. M.

J. M. Lupton, B. J. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, M. J. Jory, and W. L. Barnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Magnusson, R.

Mappes, T.

Matterson, B. J.

J. M. Lupton, B. J. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, M. J. Jory, and W. L. Barnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moharam, M. G.

Mokwa, W.

W. Mokwa, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, R47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Müller, J. G.

Nazirizadeh, Y.

Privorotskaya, N. L.

N. L. Privorotskaya, C. J. Choi, B. T. Cunningham, and W. P. King, Sens. Actuat. A 161, 66 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Riedel, B.

Samuel, I. D. W.

J. M. Lupton, B. J. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, M. J. Jory, and W. L. Barnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schelle, D.

Schulz, S.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, J. Biomol. Screen. 9, 481 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sekula, S.

Tünnermann, A.

Voelcker, N. H.

T. Kakaday, A. W. Hewitt, N. H. Voelcker, J. S. J. Li, and J. E. Craig, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 992 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, J. Biomol. Screen. 9, 481 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. S.

Wright, W. D.

W. D. Wright, Trans. Opt. Soc. 30, 141 (1929).
[CrossRef]

Xia, J.

Y. Ying, J. Xia, and S. H. Foulger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ying, Y.

Y. Ying, J. Xia, and S. H. Foulger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. M. Lupton, B. J. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, M. J. Jory, and W. L. Barnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ying, J. Xia, and S. H. Foulger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

T. Kakaday, A. W. Hewitt, N. H. Voelcker, J. S. J. Li, and J. E. Craig, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 992 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomol. Screen. (1)

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, J. Biomol. Screen. 9, 481 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

W. Mokwa, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, R47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. Fan and J. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B 65, 1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuat. A (1)

N. L. Privorotskaya, C. J. Choi, B. T. Cunningham, and W. P. King, Sens. Actuat. A 161, 66 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Opt. Soc. (1)

W. D. Wright, Trans. Opt. Soc. 30, 141 (1929).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the visual pressure-measuring device and the setup for readout. The device is composed of a flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane placed between two volumes (reference (p0) and measuring (p1) volume) and an inflexible PCS. A pressure difference dilates the membrane spherically, which leads to a circular contact area with the PCSs. For the readout, crossed polarization filters enhance the contrast of the contact area for a visual measurement.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Photograph of the visual pressure-measuring device with varied internal pressure of the chamber.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectral analysis of the GMRs with crossed polarization filters. (a) Transmission spectra through the PCS with and without PDMS membrane contact. The touching of the membrane causes a spectral shift as well as an intensity decrease of the GMR; (b) chromaticity of the transmission with and without membrane shows a parallel shift to the spectral locus in the CIE color space.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Circle radius versus inner chamber pressure measured for increasing pressure. The curve follows the cross section of an ideal sphere, which touches the PCS above a threshold value of 1.8 kPa. The sensitivity of this device is 1.25mm/kPa at 2 kPa and decreases to 0.17mm/kPa at 8 kPa.

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