Abstract

The genetic basis of congenital heart disease is yet to be defined, and the interactions between the malformed heart and biomechanical cardiac performance remain poorly understood. Functional optical imaging enables detailed biomechanical phenotyping of cardiac dysfunction in small animal models, which in turn enables specific gene-phenotype relationship. We have developed a new microangiography technique based on flow imaging using endogenous hemoglobin contrast enabling in vivo assessment and biomechanical phenotyping of Xenopus tropicalis embryonic heart. We demonstrated that hemoglobin contrast angiography can be used to quantify physiological response to treatment with well-established cardioactive drugs.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. E. Lin and H. H. Ardinger, Prog. Pediatr. Cardiol. 20, 113 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. B. McElhinney, W. Tworetzky, and J. E. Lock, Circulation 121, 1256 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. K. Khokha and T. C. Grammer, Dev. Dyn. 225, 499 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Jan, Medical Image Processing, Reconstruction and Restoration: Concepts and Methods (CRC, 2006).
  5. B. E. Bayer, “Color imaging array,” U.S. patent 3,971,065 (July20, 1976).
  6. N. Hashimoto and Y. Kosugi, Opt. Express 19, 9315 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Gono and T. Endo, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 568 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. M. Connolly and C. H. A. Jost; W. J. McKenna and S. B. Yeon, eds., “Isolated left ventricular noncompaction,” http://www.uptodate.com/contents/isolated-left-ventricular-noncompaction (UpToDate, 2011).

2011

2010

D. B. McElhinney, W. Tworetzky, and J. E. Lock, Circulation 121, 1256 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. E. Lin and H. H. Ardinger, Prog. Pediatr. Cardiol. 20, 113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

K. Gono and T. Endo, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 568 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. K. Khokha and T. C. Grammer, Dev. Dyn. 225, 499 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ardinger, H. H.

A. E. Lin and H. H. Ardinger, Prog. Pediatr. Cardiol. 20, 113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Endo, T.

K. Gono and T. Endo, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 568 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gono, K.

K. Gono and T. Endo, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 568 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grammer, T. C.

M. K. Khokha and T. C. Grammer, Dev. Dyn. 225, 499 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, N.

Jan, J.

J. Jan, Medical Image Processing, Reconstruction and Restoration: Concepts and Methods (CRC, 2006).

Khokha, M. K.

M. K. Khokha and T. C. Grammer, Dev. Dyn. 225, 499 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kosugi, Y.

Lin, A. E.

A. E. Lin and H. H. Ardinger, Prog. Pediatr. Cardiol. 20, 113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lock, J. E.

D. B. McElhinney, W. Tworetzky, and J. E. Lock, Circulation 121, 1256 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McElhinney, D. B.

D. B. McElhinney, W. Tworetzky, and J. E. Lock, Circulation 121, 1256 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tworetzky, W.

D. B. McElhinney, W. Tworetzky, and J. E. Lock, Circulation 121, 1256 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Circulation

D. B. McElhinney, W. Tworetzky, and J. E. Lock, Circulation 121, 1256 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dev. Dyn.

M. K. Khokha and T. C. Grammer, Dev. Dyn. 225, 499 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

K. Gono and T. Endo, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 568 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Prog. Pediatr. Cardiol.

A. E. Lin and H. H. Ardinger, Prog. Pediatr. Cardiol. 20, 113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. M. Connolly and C. H. A. Jost; W. J. McKenna and S. B. Yeon, eds., “Isolated left ventricular noncompaction,” http://www.uptodate.com/contents/isolated-left-ventricular-noncompaction (UpToDate, 2011).

J. Jan, Medical Image Processing, Reconstruction and Restoration: Concepts and Methods (CRC, 2006).

B. E. Bayer, “Color imaging array,” U.S. patent 3,971,065 (July20, 1976).

Supplementary Material (2)

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» Media 2: MOV (2061 KB)     

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Overview of HCSA. (a) Light absorption spectrum of Hb, (b) wedge-shaped hemoglobin phantom, (c)  an embryonic heart of Xenopus in mid-systole, which is midway through ejecting blood out of the ventricle (Media 1). The columns contain, in order, original image, blue, green, and red channels, and HCSA image generated by subtracting the red from the green channel. c, conus arteriosus; v, ventricle.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Stage 46 tadpole heart and gallbladder shown from antero-posterior view at the end of diastole, (b) corresponding grayscale HCSA, (c) false-color HCSA image with black representing zero contrast, enhancement highlighting the opposite enhancement of green bile when compared to red hemoglobin, (d) grayscale HCSA image of the same heart at the end of ventricular systole with essentially no blood in the ventricle, spiral valve situated within the conus creating differential flow to systemic and respiratory circulation, (e) HCSA pixel intensity values of gallbladder, conus arteriosus, and background plotted along the line of interest in Fig. 2(d) during systole and diastole. b, background; c, conus arteriosus; gb, gallbladder; v, ventricle; vv, vein; orange arrow indicates blood between thin trabeculations; sv, spiral valve; back, background.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Quantitative physiological response to embryo heart drug treatment assessed using HCSA (Media 2). ESA, end systolic area; SA, systolic area; EDA, end diastolic area; EF, ejection fraction.

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