Abstract

A method for refractive index of air measurement is presented based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and phase detection using a dual-frequency laser interferometer. Theoretical analyses indicate that the phase-difference variation of the measurement signal versus the reference signal is linear with refractive index of air (RIA) fluctuation, and the calculation formula of RIA is derived. The structure design of the self-adaptive SPR sensor greatly reduces the measurement error resulting from the incident angle shift and improves the sensitivity. The experiments show that measurement uncertainty of 106 order has been achieved when phase detection precision is 0.1°. The phenomenon of sudden phase variation during air pumping and air filling, which is caused by temperature fluctuation, is discussed.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Kaoru, O. Hidekazu, N. Hideyuki, M. Hiroki, and S. Hisayoshi, Int. J. Autom. Technol. 5, 126 (2011).
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    [CrossRef]
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  4. M. Ishige, M. Aketagawa, T. B. Quoc, and Y. Hoshino, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 084019 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Zhang, Z. H. Lu, B. Menegozzi, and L. J. Wang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 083104 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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  7. P. Bhatia and B. D. Gupta, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 161, 434 (2012).
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    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, Sens. Actuators 3, 79 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Allsop, R. Neal, E. M. Davies, C. Mou, P. Bond, S. Rehman, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, P. Calverhouse, and I. Bennion, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094029 (2010).
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    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

P. Bhatia and B. D. Gupta, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 161, 434 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

M. Kaoru, O. Hidekazu, N. Hideyuki, M. Hiroki, and S. Hisayoshi, Int. J. Autom. Technol. 5, 126 (2011).

2010 (1)

T. Allsop, R. Neal, E. M. Davies, C. Mou, P. Bond, S. Rehman, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, P. Calverhouse, and I. Bennion, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094029 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

M. Ishige, M. Aketagawa, T. B. Quoc, and Y. Hoshino, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 084019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. Zhang, Z. H. Lu, B. Menegozzi, and L. J. Wang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 083104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

Q. H. Chen, D. J. Lin, J. Wu, J. Q. Yan, and C. Y. Yin, Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 2030 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

1999 (1)

J. Homola, S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

K. P. Birch, F. Reinboth, R. E. Ward, and G. Wilkening, Metrologia 30, 7 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, Sens. Actuators 3, 79 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

E. Kretschmann, Z. Phys. 241, 313 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

B. Edlen, Metrologia 2, 71 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Aketagawa, M.

M. Ishige, M. Aketagawa, T. B. Quoc, and Y. Hoshino, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 084019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Allsop, T.

T. Allsop, R. Neal, E. M. Davies, C. Mou, P. Bond, S. Rehman, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, P. Calverhouse, and I. Bennion, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094029 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Badenes, G.

Bennion, I.

T. Allsop, R. Neal, E. M. Davies, C. Mou, P. Bond, S. Rehman, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, P. Calverhouse, and I. Bennion, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094029 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bhatia, P.

P. Bhatia and B. D. Gupta, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 161, 434 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Birch, K. P.

K. P. Birch, F. Reinboth, R. E. Ward, and G. Wilkening, Metrologia 30, 7 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bond, P.

T. Allsop, R. Neal, E. M. Davies, C. Mou, P. Bond, S. Rehman, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, P. Calverhouse, and I. Bennion, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094029 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Calverhouse, P.

T. Allsop, R. Neal, E. M. Davies, C. Mou, P. Bond, S. Rehman, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, P. Calverhouse, and I. Bennion, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094029 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q. H.

Q. H. Chen, D. J. Lin, J. Wu, J. Q. Yan, and C. Y. Yin, Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 2030 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Davies, E. M.

T. Allsop, R. Neal, E. M. Davies, C. Mou, P. Bond, S. Rehman, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, P. Calverhouse, and I. Bennion, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094029 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Edlen, B.

B. Edlen, Metrologia 2, 71 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Gauglitz, G.

J. Homola, S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, B. D.

P. Bhatia and B. D. Gupta, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 161, 434 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, T. P.

Hernandez, D.

Hidekazu, O.

M. Kaoru, O. Hidekazu, N. Hideyuki, M. Hiroki, and S. Hisayoshi, Int. J. Autom. Technol. 5, 126 (2011).

Hideyuki, N.

M. Kaoru, O. Hidekazu, N. Hideyuki, M. Hiroki, and S. Hisayoshi, Int. J. Autom. Technol. 5, 126 (2011).

Hiroki, M.

M. Kaoru, O. Hidekazu, N. Hideyuki, M. Hiroki, and S. Hisayoshi, Int. J. Autom. Technol. 5, 126 (2011).

Hisayoshi, S.

M. Kaoru, O. Hidekazu, N. Hideyuki, M. Hiroki, and S. Hisayoshi, Int. J. Autom. Technol. 5, 126 (2011).

Homola, J.

J. Homola, S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hoshino, Y.

M. Ishige, M. Aketagawa, T. B. Quoc, and Y. Hoshino, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 084019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ishige, M.

M. Ishige, M. Aketagawa, T. B. Quoc, and Y. Hoshino, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 084019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kalli, K.

T. Allsop, R. Neal, E. M. Davies, C. Mou, P. Bond, S. Rehman, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, P. Calverhouse, and I. Bennion, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094029 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kaoru, M.

M. Kaoru, O. Hidekazu, N. Hideyuki, M. Hiroki, and S. Hisayoshi, Int. J. Autom. Technol. 5, 126 (2011).

Kretschmann, E.

E. Kretschmann, Z. Phys. 241, 313 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Liedberg, B.

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, Sens. Actuators 3, 79 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lin, D. J.

Q. H. Chen, D. J. Lin, J. Wu, J. Q. Yan, and C. Y. Yin, Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 2030 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lind, T.

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, Sens. Actuators 3, 79 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Z. H.

J. Zhang, Z. H. Lu, B. Menegozzi, and L. J. Wang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 083104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ludvigsen, H.

Menegozzi, B.

J. Zhang, Z. H. Lu, B. Menegozzi, and L. J. Wang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 083104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Minkovich, V. P.

Mou, C.

T. Allsop, R. Neal, E. M. Davies, C. Mou, P. Bond, S. Rehman, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, P. Calverhouse, and I. Bennion, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094029 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Neal, R.

T. Allsop, R. Neal, E. M. Davies, C. Mou, P. Bond, S. Rehman, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, P. Calverhouse, and I. Bennion, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094029 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nylander, C.

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, Sens. Actuators 3, 79 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, J. C.

Quoc, T. B.

M. Ishige, M. Aketagawa, T. B. Quoc, and Y. Hoshino, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 084019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rehman, S.

T. Allsop, R. Neal, E. M. Davies, C. Mou, P. Bond, S. Rehman, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, P. Calverhouse, and I. Bennion, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094029 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reinboth, F.

K. P. Birch, F. Reinboth, R. E. Ward, and G. Wilkening, Metrologia 30, 7 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ritari, T.

Simonsen, H. R.

Sorensen, T.

Tuominen, J.

Villatoro, J.

Wang, L. J.

J. Zhang, Z. H. Lu, B. Menegozzi, and L. J. Wang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 083104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ward, R. E.

K. P. Birch, F. Reinboth, R. E. Ward, and G. Wilkening, Metrologia 30, 7 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Webb, D. J.

T. Allsop, R. Neal, E. M. Davies, C. Mou, P. Bond, S. Rehman, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, P. Calverhouse, and I. Bennion, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094029 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wilkening, G.

K. P. Birch, F. Reinboth, R. E. Ward, and G. Wilkening, Metrologia 30, 7 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

Q. H. Chen, D. J. Lin, J. Wu, J. Q. Yan, and C. Y. Yin, Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 2030 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yan, J. Q.

Q. H. Chen, D. J. Lin, J. Wu, J. Q. Yan, and C. Y. Yin, Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 2030 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yee, S.

J. Homola, S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yin, C. Y.

Q. H. Chen, D. J. Lin, J. Wu, J. Q. Yan, and C. Y. Yin, Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 2030 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, Z. H. Lu, B. Menegozzi, and L. J. Wang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 083104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Autom. Technol. (1)

M. Kaoru, O. Hidekazu, N. Hideyuki, M. Hiroki, and S. Hisayoshi, Int. J. Autom. Technol. 5, 126 (2011).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (3)

M. Ishige, M. Aketagawa, T. B. Quoc, and Y. Hoshino, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 084019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, R. Neal, E. M. Davies, C. Mou, P. Bond, S. Rehman, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, P. Calverhouse, and I. Bennion, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094029 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. H. Chen, D. J. Lin, J. Wu, J. Q. Yan, and C. Y. Yin, Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 2030 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (2)

B. Edlen, Metrologia 2, 71 (1966).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Birch, F. Reinboth, R. E. Ward, and G. Wilkening, Metrologia 30, 7 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. Zhang, Z. H. Lu, B. Menegozzi, and L. J. Wang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 083104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators (1)

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, Sens. Actuators 3, 79 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (2)

J. Homola, S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Bhatia and B. D. Gupta, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 161, 434 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. (1)

E. Kretschmann, Z. Phys. 241, 313 (1971).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Theoretical curves of the phase-difference change versus RIA variation and incident angle.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Error of RIA measurement before and after self-adaptive modification when the shift of the incident angle is 15 radians. (b) Self-adaptive SPR prism.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic of the RIA measurement system configuration based on self-adaptive SPR sensor and phase detection.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Curve of the RIA measurement experimental (5 periods). (b) The intense temperature fluctuation causes additional phase-difference change. (1) Phase-difference variation. (2) Temperature variation.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Air Parameters in the Vacuum Chambera

Tables Icon

Table 2. Calibration of KRIA and ϕps0

Tables Icon

Table 3. Refractive Index of Air Comparison between Two Methods

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

rq=r01q+r12qexp(2jk1zd)1+r01qr12qexp(2jk1zd),q=p,s,
ri,i+1q=XiqXi+1qXiq+Xi+1q(i=0,1),
Xiq={εikiz,q=pkiz,q=s(i=0,1,2),
kiz=(ω/c)2εikx2,kx=ωcε0sinθinc(i=0,1,2),
rp=|rp|eiϕp,rs=|rs|eiϕs.
ϕps=ϕpϕs.
nair1=ϕpsϕps0KRIA,

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