Abstract

Despite numerous efforts, continuous wave (CW) lasing in dye doped, one-dimensional (1D) photonic bandgap cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) structures has not been previously reported, to our knowledge. Here we report on the observation of lasing in such structures under both coherent (laser) and incoherent (LED) CW light excitation. To achieve this effect, we used a 1D-photonic bandgap structure made of a polymer stabilized CLC with a pitch gradient across the cell thickness. A spectral reflectivity profile of such a CLC structure reveals local minima in the area within a photonic stopband and close to it. The realization of lasing pumped by low power CW light sources opens the possibility of all-organic, compact, tunable CW lasers for display and medical applications.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. M. Blinov and R. Bartolino, eds. Liquid Crystal Microlasers (Transworld Research Network, 2010).
  2. H. Coles and S. Morris, Nat. Photon. 4, 676 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. P. Il’chishin, E. A. Tikhonov, V. G. Tishchenko, and M. T. Shpak, JETP Lett. 32, 24 (1980).
  4. V. I. Knopp, B. Fan, H. K. M. Vithana, and A. Z. Genack, Opt. Lett. 23, 1707 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Furumi, Chem. Rec. 10, 394 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, and P. J. M. Vanbrabant, Opt. Eng. 50, 081202 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. O’Neill and S. M. Kelly, Adv. Mater. 23, 566 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Araoka and H. Takesoe, Proc. SPIE 7935, 79350A (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Taheri, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and R. Twieg, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 358, 73 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, Opt. Lett. 26, 804 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, Adv. Mater. 13, 1069 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, Nat. Mater. 1, 111 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. A. Montejano, F. Amat-Guerri, A. Costela, I. Garcia-Moreno, M. Liras, and R. Sastre, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 181, 142 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. J. Broer, J. Lub, and G. N. Mol, Nature 378, 467 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Katsis, “Circularly polarized photoluminescence from the resonance region of vitrified chiral-nematic films,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Rochester, 2000).
  16. M. E. McConney, V. P. Tondiglia, J. M. Hurtubise, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, Chem. Commun. 47, 505 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Mazkedian, S. Melone, and F. Rustichelli, J. Phys. 37, 731 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. M. Sedrakian, A. H. Gevorgyan, A. Zh Khachatrian, and V. D. Badalian, Opt. Commun. 271, 451 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, and H. Finkelmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 083902 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Schmidtke and W. Stille, Eur. Phys. J. B 31, 179 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Cao, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, C. Q. Cao, and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4524 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. J. Coles, S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, P. J. W. Hands, and T. D. Wilkinson, Proc. SPIE 7414, 741402 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. J. Coles, “Ultrafast switching liquid crystals for electro-optic transmissive and reflective displays and microscopic lasers,” slides 79–80, presentation, paper I–35, Optics of Liquid Crystals, 14th International Topical Meeting, Yerevan, Armenia, September 2011.

2011 (4)

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, and P. J. M. Vanbrabant, Opt. Eng. 50, 081202 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. O’Neill and S. M. Kelly, Adv. Mater. 23, 566 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Araoka and H. Takesoe, Proc. SPIE 7935, 79350A (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. E. McConney, V. P. Tondiglia, J. M. Hurtubise, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, Chem. Commun. 47, 505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

H. Coles and S. Morris, Nat. Photon. 4, 676 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Furumi, Chem. Rec. 10, 394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

H. J. Coles, S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, P. J. W. Hands, and T. D. Wilkinson, Proc. SPIE 7414, 741402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

D. M. Sedrakian, A. H. Gevorgyan, A. Zh Khachatrian, and V. D. Badalian, Opt. Commun. 271, 451 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

H. A. Montejano, F. Amat-Guerri, A. Costela, I. Garcia-Moreno, M. Liras, and R. Sastre, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 181, 142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, and H. Finkelmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 083902 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Schmidtke and W. Stille, Eur. Phys. J. B 31, 179 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, Nat. Mater. 1, 111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

H. Cao, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, C. Q. Cao, and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4524 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Taheri, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and R. Twieg, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 358, 73 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, Opt. Lett. 26, 804 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, Adv. Mater. 13, 1069 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1995 (1)

D. J. Broer, J. Lub, and G. N. Mol, Nature 378, 467 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

I. P. Il’chishin, E. A. Tikhonov, V. G. Tishchenko, and M. T. Shpak, JETP Lett. 32, 24 (1980).

1976 (1)

S. Mazkedian, S. Melone, and F. Rustichelli, J. Phys. 37, 731 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Amat-Guerri, F.

H. A. Montejano, F. Amat-Guerri, A. Costela, I. Garcia-Moreno, M. Liras, and R. Sastre, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 181, 142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Araoka, F.

F. Araoka and H. Takesoe, Proc. SPIE 7935, 79350A (2011).
[CrossRef]

Badalian, V. D.

D. M. Sedrakian, A. H. Gevorgyan, A. Zh Khachatrian, and V. D. Badalian, Opt. Commun. 271, 451 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beeckman, J.

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, and P. J. M. Vanbrabant, Opt. Eng. 50, 081202 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Broer, D. J.

D. J. Broer, J. Lub, and G. N. Mol, Nature 378, 467 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bunning, T. J.

M. E. McConney, V. P. Tondiglia, J. M. Hurtubise, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, Chem. Commun. 47, 505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cao, C. Q.

H. Cao, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, C. Q. Cao, and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4524 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

H. Cao, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, C. Q. Cao, and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4524 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, Nat. Mater. 1, 111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Coles, H.

H. Coles and S. Morris, Nat. Photon. 4, 676 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Coles, H. J.

H. J. Coles, S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, P. J. W. Hands, and T. D. Wilkinson, Proc. SPIE 7414, 741402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Coles, “Ultrafast switching liquid crystals for electro-optic transmissive and reflective displays and microscopic lasers,” slides 79–80, presentation, paper I–35, Optics of Liquid Crystals, 14th International Topical Meeting, Yerevan, Armenia, September 2011.

Costela, A.

H. A. Montejano, F. Amat-Guerri, A. Costela, I. Garcia-Moreno, M. Liras, and R. Sastre, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 181, 142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fan, B.

Finkelmann, H.

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, and H. Finkelmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 083902 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, Adv. Mater. 13, 1069 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ford, A. D.

H. J. Coles, S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, P. J. W. Hands, and T. D. Wilkinson, Proc. SPIE 7414, 741402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Furumi, S.

S. Furumi, Chem. Rec. 10, 394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Moreno, I.

H. A. Montejano, F. Amat-Guerri, A. Costela, I. Garcia-Moreno, M. Liras, and R. Sastre, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 181, 142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Genack, A. Z.

Gevorgyan, A. H.

D. M. Sedrakian, A. H. Gevorgyan, A. Zh Khachatrian, and V. D. Badalian, Opt. Commun. 271, 451 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hands, P. J. W.

H. J. Coles, S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, P. J. W. Hands, and T. D. Wilkinson, Proc. SPIE 7414, 741402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hurtubise, J. M.

M. E. McConney, V. P. Tondiglia, J. M. Hurtubise, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, Chem. Commun. 47, 505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Il’chishin, I. P.

I. P. Il’chishin, E. A. Tikhonov, V. G. Tishchenko, and M. T. Shpak, JETP Lett. 32, 24 (1980).

Katsis, D.

D. Katsis, “Circularly polarized photoluminescence from the resonance region of vitrified chiral-nematic films,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Rochester, 2000).

Kelly, S. M.

M. O’Neill and S. M. Kelly, Adv. Mater. 23, 566 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Khachatrian, A. Zh

D. M. Sedrakian, A. H. Gevorgyan, A. Zh Khachatrian, and V. D. Badalian, Opt. Commun. 271, 451 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. T.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, Adv. Mater. 13, 1069 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Knopp, V. I.

Kumar, P.

H. Cao, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, C. Q. Cao, and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4524 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ling, Y.

H. Cao, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, C. Q. Cao, and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4524 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liras, M.

H. A. Montejano, F. Amat-Guerri, A. Costela, I. Garcia-Moreno, M. Liras, and R. Sastre, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 181, 142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lub, J.

D. J. Broer, J. Lub, and G. N. Mol, Nature 378, 467 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mazkedian, S.

S. Mazkedian, S. Melone, and F. Rustichelli, J. Phys. 37, 731 (1976).
[CrossRef]

McConney, M. E.

M. E. McConney, V. P. Tondiglia, J. M. Hurtubise, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, Chem. Commun. 47, 505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Melone, S.

S. Mazkedian, S. Melone, and F. Rustichelli, J. Phys. 37, 731 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Mol, G. N.

D. J. Broer, J. Lub, and G. N. Mol, Nature 378, 467 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Montejano, H. A.

H. A. Montejano, F. Amat-Guerri, A. Costela, I. Garcia-Moreno, M. Liras, and R. Sastre, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 181, 142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Morris, S.

H. Coles and S. Morris, Nat. Photon. 4, 676 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Morris, S. M.

H. J. Coles, S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, P. J. W. Hands, and T. D. Wilkinson, Proc. SPIE 7414, 741402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Muñoz, A.

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, Nat. Mater. 1, 111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, Adv. Mater. 13, 1069 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Taheri, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and R. Twieg, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 358, 73 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, Opt. Lett. 26, 804 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Neyts, K.

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, and P. J. M. Vanbrabant, Opt. Eng. 50, 081202 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O’Neill, M.

M. O’Neill and S. M. Kelly, Adv. Mater. 23, 566 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Palffy-Muhoray, P.

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, Nat. Mater. 1, 111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, Opt. Lett. 26, 804 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Taheri, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and R. Twieg, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 358, 73 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, Adv. Mater. 13, 1069 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rustichelli, F.

S. Mazkedian, S. Melone, and F. Rustichelli, J. Phys. 37, 731 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Sastre, R.

H. A. Montejano, F. Amat-Guerri, A. Costela, I. Garcia-Moreno, M. Liras, and R. Sastre, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 181, 142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmidtke, J.

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, and H. Finkelmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 083902 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Schmidtke and W. Stille, Eur. Phys. J. B 31, 179 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sedrakian, D. M.

D. M. Sedrakian, A. H. Gevorgyan, A. Zh Khachatrian, and V. D. Badalian, Opt. Commun. 271, 451 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shpak, M. T.

I. P. Il’chishin, E. A. Tikhonov, V. G. Tishchenko, and M. T. Shpak, JETP Lett. 32, 24 (1980).

Stille, W.

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, and H. Finkelmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 083902 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Schmidtke and W. Stille, Eur. Phys. J. B 31, 179 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Taheri, B.

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, Nat. Mater. 1, 111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, Adv. Mater. 13, 1069 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, Opt. Lett. 26, 804 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Taheri, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and R. Twieg, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 358, 73 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Takesoe, H.

F. Araoka and H. Takesoe, Proc. SPIE 7935, 79350A (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tikhonov, E. A.

I. P. Il’chishin, E. A. Tikhonov, V. G. Tishchenko, and M. T. Shpak, JETP Lett. 32, 24 (1980).

Tishchenko, V. G.

I. P. Il’chishin, E. A. Tikhonov, V. G. Tishchenko, and M. T. Shpak, JETP Lett. 32, 24 (1980).

Tondiglia, V. P.

M. E. McConney, V. P. Tondiglia, J. M. Hurtubise, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, Chem. Commun. 47, 505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Twieg, R.

B. Taheri, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and R. Twieg, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 358, 73 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vanbrabant, P. J. M.

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, and P. J. M. Vanbrabant, Opt. Eng. 50, 081202 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vithana, H. K. M.

White, T. J.

M. E. McConney, V. P. Tondiglia, J. M. Hurtubise, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, Chem. Commun. 47, 505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, T. D.

H. J. Coles, S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, P. J. W. Hands, and T. D. Wilkinson, Proc. SPIE 7414, 741402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J. Y.

H. Cao, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, C. Q. Cao, and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4524 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (2)

M. O’Neill and S. M. Kelly, Adv. Mater. 23, 566 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, Adv. Mater. 13, 1069 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Commun. (1)

M. E. McConney, V. P. Tondiglia, J. M. Hurtubise, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, Chem. Commun. 47, 505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rec. (1)

S. Furumi, Chem. Rec. 10, 394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. B (1)

J. Schmidtke and W. Stille, Eur. Phys. J. B 31, 179 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Photochem. Photobiol. A (1)

H. A. Montejano, F. Amat-Guerri, A. Costela, I. Garcia-Moreno, M. Liras, and R. Sastre, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 181, 142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. (1)

S. Mazkedian, S. Melone, and F. Rustichelli, J. Phys. 37, 731 (1976).
[CrossRef]

JETP Lett. (1)

I. P. Il’chishin, E. A. Tikhonov, V. G. Tishchenko, and M. T. Shpak, JETP Lett. 32, 24 (1980).

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

B. Taheri, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and R. Twieg, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 358, 73 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, Nat. Mater. 1, 111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (1)

H. Coles and S. Morris, Nat. Photon. 4, 676 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

D. J. Broer, J. Lub, and G. N. Mol, Nature 378, 467 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. M. Sedrakian, A. H. Gevorgyan, A. Zh Khachatrian, and V. D. Badalian, Opt. Commun. 271, 451 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, and P. J. M. Vanbrabant, Opt. Eng. 50, 081202 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, and H. Finkelmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 083902 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, C. Q. Cao, and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4524 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

H. J. Coles, S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, P. J. W. Hands, and T. D. Wilkinson, Proc. SPIE 7414, 741402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Araoka and H. Takesoe, Proc. SPIE 7935, 79350A (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

L. M. Blinov and R. Bartolino, eds. Liquid Crystal Microlasers (Transworld Research Network, 2010).

H. J. Coles, “Ultrafast switching liquid crystals for electro-optic transmissive and reflective displays and microscopic lasers,” slides 79–80, presentation, paper I–35, Optics of Liquid Crystals, 14th International Topical Meeting, Yerevan, Armenia, September 2011.

D. Katsis, “Circularly polarized photoluminescence from the resonance region of vitrified chiral-nematic films,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Rochester, 2000).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Structure (inset, left) and spectral reflectivity profiles of the LC cell (region 1 of template structure) with (black) and without the PM 597 dye (blue) along with observed nanosecond laser emission spectra (red) and corresponding picture of the laser emission (insert, right).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Emission of the sample at different CW pumping powers. Red line is the RH and pink is the LH emission spectrum. (b) Linewidth and amplitude of RH laser emission as a function of CW pump power. The laser emission occurs at the exact same location as nanosecond lasing, at the local minimum within the selective reflection band of the CLC structure (region 1).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

RH-emission of the LED pumped sample (heavy blue). For reference, a 532 CW laser line [green (gray solid in print)] as well as nanosecond laser emission (dashed red) in the same sample are presented.

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