Abstract

A fiber-coupled single-photon system is presented. Gradient-index lenses are utilized for single-photon collection and fiber coupling of a nitrogen-vacancy defect center in a nanodiamond. Integrated filter technology separates excitation and laser light. Therefore, the system is ultracompact with 120mm3 in dimension as no bulky free beam optics are used. The commercial availability of all components and their simple assembly allows the implementation of a low-cost single-photon system, possibly approaching single-photon count rates of 500kcts/s.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. I. Aharonovich, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, Nat. Photon. 5, 397 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Bernien, L. Childress, L. Robledo, M. Markham, D. Twitchen, and R. Hanson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 043604 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2012

H. Bernien, L. Childress, L. Robledo, M. Markham, D. Twitchen, and R. Hanson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 043604 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

I. Aharonovich, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, Nat. Photon. 5, 397 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Neu, D. Steinmetz, J. Riedrich-Moller, S. Gsell, M. Fischer, M. Schreck, and C. Becher, New J. Phys. 13, 025012 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Schröder, F. Gädeke, M. J. Banholzer, and O. Benson, New J. Phys. 13, 055017 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Schröder, A. W. Schell, G. Kewes, T. Aichele, and O. Benson, Nano Letters 11, 198 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Schell, G. Kewes, T. Schröder, J. Wolters, T. Aichele, and O. Benson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 073709 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

J. Claudon, J. Bleuse, N. S. Malik, M. Bazin, P. Jaffrennou, N. Gregersen, C. Sauvan, P. Lalanne, and J.-M. Gerard, Nat. Photon. 4, 174 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Siyushev, F. Kaiser, V. Jacques, I. Gerhardt, S. Bischof, H. Fedder, J. Dodson, M. Markham, D. Twitchen, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

I. Aharonovich, C. Zhou, A. Stacey, J. Orwa, S. Castelletto, D. Simpson, A. D. Greentree, F. Treussart, J.-F. Roch, and S. Prawer, Phys. Rev. B 79, 235316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2000

C. Kurtsiefer, S. Mayer, P. Zarda, and H. Weinfurter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 290 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1977

1956

R. Hanbuy Brown and R. Q. Twiss, Nature 177, 27 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Aharonovich, I.

I. Aharonovich, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, Nat. Photon. 5, 397 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Aharonovich, C. Zhou, A. Stacey, J. Orwa, S. Castelletto, D. Simpson, A. D. Greentree, F. Treussart, J.-F. Roch, and S. Prawer, Phys. Rev. B 79, 235316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Aichele, T.

T. Schröder, A. W. Schell, G. Kewes, T. Aichele, and O. Benson, Nano Letters 11, 198 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Schell, G. Kewes, T. Schröder, J. Wolters, T. Aichele, and O. Benson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 073709 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Banholzer, M. J.

T. Schröder, F. Gädeke, M. J. Banholzer, and O. Benson, New J. Phys. 13, 055017 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bazin, M.

J. Claudon, J. Bleuse, N. S. Malik, M. Bazin, P. Jaffrennou, N. Gregersen, C. Sauvan, P. Lalanne, and J.-M. Gerard, Nat. Photon. 4, 174 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Becher, C.

E. Neu, D. Steinmetz, J. Riedrich-Moller, S. Gsell, M. Fischer, M. Schreck, and C. Becher, New J. Phys. 13, 025012 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Benson, O.

T. Schröder, F. Gädeke, M. J. Banholzer, and O. Benson, New J. Phys. 13, 055017 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Schröder, A. W. Schell, G. Kewes, T. Aichele, and O. Benson, Nano Letters 11, 198 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Schell, G. Kewes, T. Schröder, J. Wolters, T. Aichele, and O. Benson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 073709 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bernien, H.

H. Bernien, L. Childress, L. Robledo, M. Markham, D. Twitchen, and R. Hanson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 043604 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bischof, S.

P. Siyushev, F. Kaiser, V. Jacques, I. Gerhardt, S. Bischof, H. Fedder, J. Dodson, M. Markham, D. Twitchen, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bleuse, J.

J. Claudon, J. Bleuse, N. S. Malik, M. Bazin, P. Jaffrennou, N. Gregersen, C. Sauvan, P. Lalanne, and J.-M. Gerard, Nat. Photon. 4, 174 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Castelletto, S.

I. Aharonovich, C. Zhou, A. Stacey, J. Orwa, S. Castelletto, D. Simpson, A. D. Greentree, F. Treussart, J.-F. Roch, and S. Prawer, Phys. Rev. B 79, 235316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Childress, L.

H. Bernien, L. Childress, L. Robledo, M. Markham, D. Twitchen, and R. Hanson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 043604 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Claudon, J.

J. Claudon, J. Bleuse, N. S. Malik, M. Bazin, P. Jaffrennou, N. Gregersen, C. Sauvan, P. Lalanne, and J.-M. Gerard, Nat. Photon. 4, 174 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dodson, J.

P. Siyushev, F. Kaiser, V. Jacques, I. Gerhardt, S. Bischof, H. Fedder, J. Dodson, M. Markham, D. Twitchen, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fedder, H.

P. Siyushev, F. Kaiser, V. Jacques, I. Gerhardt, S. Bischof, H. Fedder, J. Dodson, M. Markham, D. Twitchen, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, M.

E. Neu, D. Steinmetz, J. Riedrich-Moller, S. Gsell, M. Fischer, M. Schreck, and C. Becher, New J. Phys. 13, 025012 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gädeke, F.

T. Schröder, F. Gädeke, M. J. Banholzer, and O. Benson, New J. Phys. 13, 055017 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gerard, J.-M.

J. Claudon, J. Bleuse, N. S. Malik, M. Bazin, P. Jaffrennou, N. Gregersen, C. Sauvan, P. Lalanne, and J.-M. Gerard, Nat. Photon. 4, 174 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gerhardt, I.

P. Siyushev, F. Kaiser, V. Jacques, I. Gerhardt, S. Bischof, H. Fedder, J. Dodson, M. Markham, D. Twitchen, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Greentree, A. D.

I. Aharonovich, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, Nat. Photon. 5, 397 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Aharonovich, C. Zhou, A. Stacey, J. Orwa, S. Castelletto, D. Simpson, A. D. Greentree, F. Treussart, J.-F. Roch, and S. Prawer, Phys. Rev. B 79, 235316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gregersen, N.

J. Claudon, J. Bleuse, N. S. Malik, M. Bazin, P. Jaffrennou, N. Gregersen, C. Sauvan, P. Lalanne, and J.-M. Gerard, Nat. Photon. 4, 174 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gsell, S.

E. Neu, D. Steinmetz, J. Riedrich-Moller, S. Gsell, M. Fischer, M. Schreck, and C. Becher, New J. Phys. 13, 025012 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hanbuy Brown, R.

R. Hanbuy Brown and R. Q. Twiss, Nature 177, 27 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, R.

H. Bernien, L. Childress, L. Robledo, M. Markham, D. Twitchen, and R. Hanson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 043604 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jacques, V.

P. Siyushev, F. Kaiser, V. Jacques, I. Gerhardt, S. Bischof, H. Fedder, J. Dodson, M. Markham, D. Twitchen, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jaffrennou, P.

J. Claudon, J. Bleuse, N. S. Malik, M. Bazin, P. Jaffrennou, N. Gregersen, C. Sauvan, P. Lalanne, and J.-M. Gerard, Nat. Photon. 4, 174 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jelezko, F.

P. Siyushev, F. Kaiser, V. Jacques, I. Gerhardt, S. Bischof, H. Fedder, J. Dodson, M. Markham, D. Twitchen, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, F.

P. Siyushev, F. Kaiser, V. Jacques, I. Gerhardt, S. Bischof, H. Fedder, J. Dodson, M. Markham, D. Twitchen, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kewes, G.

A. W. Schell, G. Kewes, T. Schröder, J. Wolters, T. Aichele, and O. Benson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 073709 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Schröder, A. W. Schell, G. Kewes, T. Aichele, and O. Benson, Nano Letters 11, 198 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kunz, R. E.

Kurtsiefer, C.

C. Kurtsiefer, S. Mayer, P. Zarda, and H. Weinfurter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 290 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne, P.

J. Claudon, J. Bleuse, N. S. Malik, M. Bazin, P. Jaffrennou, N. Gregersen, C. Sauvan, P. Lalanne, and J.-M. Gerard, Nat. Photon. 4, 174 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lukosz, W.

Malik, N. S.

J. Claudon, J. Bleuse, N. S. Malik, M. Bazin, P. Jaffrennou, N. Gregersen, C. Sauvan, P. Lalanne, and J.-M. Gerard, Nat. Photon. 4, 174 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Markham, M.

H. Bernien, L. Childress, L. Robledo, M. Markham, D. Twitchen, and R. Hanson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 043604 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Siyushev, F. Kaiser, V. Jacques, I. Gerhardt, S. Bischof, H. Fedder, J. Dodson, M. Markham, D. Twitchen, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, S.

C. Kurtsiefer, S. Mayer, P. Zarda, and H. Weinfurter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 290 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Neu, E.

E. Neu, D. Steinmetz, J. Riedrich-Moller, S. Gsell, M. Fischer, M. Schreck, and C. Becher, New J. Phys. 13, 025012 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Orwa, J.

I. Aharonovich, C. Zhou, A. Stacey, J. Orwa, S. Castelletto, D. Simpson, A. D. Greentree, F. Treussart, J.-F. Roch, and S. Prawer, Phys. Rev. B 79, 235316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Prawer, S.

I. Aharonovich, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, Nat. Photon. 5, 397 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Aharonovich, C. Zhou, A. Stacey, J. Orwa, S. Castelletto, D. Simpson, A. D. Greentree, F. Treussart, J.-F. Roch, and S. Prawer, Phys. Rev. B 79, 235316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Riedrich-Moller, J.

E. Neu, D. Steinmetz, J. Riedrich-Moller, S. Gsell, M. Fischer, M. Schreck, and C. Becher, New J. Phys. 13, 025012 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Robledo, L.

H. Bernien, L. Childress, L. Robledo, M. Markham, D. Twitchen, and R. Hanson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 043604 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Roch, J.-F.

I. Aharonovich, C. Zhou, A. Stacey, J. Orwa, S. Castelletto, D. Simpson, A. D. Greentree, F. Treussart, J.-F. Roch, and S. Prawer, Phys. Rev. B 79, 235316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sauvan, C.

J. Claudon, J. Bleuse, N. S. Malik, M. Bazin, P. Jaffrennou, N. Gregersen, C. Sauvan, P. Lalanne, and J.-M. Gerard, Nat. Photon. 4, 174 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schell, A. W.

A. W. Schell, G. Kewes, T. Schröder, J. Wolters, T. Aichele, and O. Benson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 073709 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Schröder, A. W. Schell, G. Kewes, T. Aichele, and O. Benson, Nano Letters 11, 198 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schreck, M.

E. Neu, D. Steinmetz, J. Riedrich-Moller, S. Gsell, M. Fischer, M. Schreck, and C. Becher, New J. Phys. 13, 025012 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schröder, T.

T. Schröder, A. W. Schell, G. Kewes, T. Aichele, and O. Benson, Nano Letters 11, 198 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Schröder, F. Gädeke, M. J. Banholzer, and O. Benson, New J. Phys. 13, 055017 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Schell, G. Kewes, T. Schröder, J. Wolters, T. Aichele, and O. Benson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 073709 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, D.

I. Aharonovich, C. Zhou, A. Stacey, J. Orwa, S. Castelletto, D. Simpson, A. D. Greentree, F. Treussart, J.-F. Roch, and S. Prawer, Phys. Rev. B 79, 235316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Siyushev, P.

P. Siyushev, F. Kaiser, V. Jacques, I. Gerhardt, S. Bischof, H. Fedder, J. Dodson, M. Markham, D. Twitchen, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stacey, A.

I. Aharonovich, C. Zhou, A. Stacey, J. Orwa, S. Castelletto, D. Simpson, A. D. Greentree, F. Treussart, J.-F. Roch, and S. Prawer, Phys. Rev. B 79, 235316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Steinmetz, D.

E. Neu, D. Steinmetz, J. Riedrich-Moller, S. Gsell, M. Fischer, M. Schreck, and C. Becher, New J. Phys. 13, 025012 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Treussart, F.

I. Aharonovich, C. Zhou, A. Stacey, J. Orwa, S. Castelletto, D. Simpson, A. D. Greentree, F. Treussart, J.-F. Roch, and S. Prawer, Phys. Rev. B 79, 235316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Twiss, R. Q.

R. Hanbuy Brown and R. Q. Twiss, Nature 177, 27 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Twitchen, D.

H. Bernien, L. Childress, L. Robledo, M. Markham, D. Twitchen, and R. Hanson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 043604 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Siyushev, F. Kaiser, V. Jacques, I. Gerhardt, S. Bischof, H. Fedder, J. Dodson, M. Markham, D. Twitchen, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Weinfurter, H.

C. Kurtsiefer, S. Mayer, P. Zarda, and H. Weinfurter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 290 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wolters, J.

A. W. Schell, G. Kewes, T. Schröder, J. Wolters, T. Aichele, and O. Benson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 073709 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wrachtrup, J.

P. Siyushev, F. Kaiser, V. Jacques, I. Gerhardt, S. Bischof, H. Fedder, J. Dodson, M. Markham, D. Twitchen, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zarda, P.

C. Kurtsiefer, S. Mayer, P. Zarda, and H. Weinfurter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 290 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, C.

I. Aharonovich, C. Zhou, A. Stacey, J. Orwa, S. Castelletto, D. Simpson, A. D. Greentree, F. Treussart, J.-F. Roch, and S. Prawer, Phys. Rev. B 79, 235316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

P. Siyushev, F. Kaiser, V. Jacques, I. Gerhardt, S. Bischof, H. Fedder, J. Dodson, M. Markham, D. Twitchen, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Nano Letters

T. Schröder, A. W. Schell, G. Kewes, T. Aichele, and O. Benson, Nano Letters 11, 198 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon.

I. Aharonovich, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, Nat. Photon. 5, 397 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Claudon, J. Bleuse, N. S. Malik, M. Bazin, P. Jaffrennou, N. Gregersen, C. Sauvan, P. Lalanne, and J.-M. Gerard, Nat. Photon. 4, 174 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature

R. Hanbuy Brown and R. Q. Twiss, Nature 177, 27 (1956).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys.

E. Neu, D. Steinmetz, J. Riedrich-Moller, S. Gsell, M. Fischer, M. Schreck, and C. Becher, New J. Phys. 13, 025012 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Schröder, F. Gädeke, M. J. Banholzer, and O. Benson, New J. Phys. 13, 055017 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

I. Aharonovich, C. Zhou, A. Stacey, J. Orwa, S. Castelletto, D. Simpson, A. D. Greentree, F. Treussart, J.-F. Roch, and S. Prawer, Phys. Rev. B 79, 235316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

C. Kurtsiefer, S. Mayer, P. Zarda, and H. Weinfurter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 290 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Bernien, L. Childress, L. Robledo, M. Markham, D. Twitchen, and R. Hanson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 043604 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

A. W. Schell, G. Kewes, T. Schröder, J. Wolters, T. Aichele, and O. Benson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 073709 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other

www.oib-jena.de .

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic of the compact single-photon collection system. Single-photon emission of defect centers in nanodiamonds, deposited on the facet of a high numerical GRIN lens (NA=0.6), is coupled into a single mode fiber via a second GRIN lens (NA=0.2). The depicted Bragg filters block the excitation laser. They are attached by a special filter transfer technology (O.I.B. GmbH, Jena, Germany). (b) Photographic image of the assembled single-photon collection system. Not displayed is the three-dimensional stage that controls the position of the fiber.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of the tabletop setup. A green 532 nm laser was used to excite defect centers in nanodiamonds. BS, beam splitter; BC, beam control; FM, flip mirror; PH, pinhole; HBT, Hanbury Brown and Twiss setup; Spec, spectrometer; APD, avalanche photo diode.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Schematic picture of the nanodiamond deposition technique. The GRIN lens is used as a sample holder and placed inside a home-built spin-coating setup; (b) x-y-distribution of fluorescent nanodiamonds (50 nm average size) on the facet of a GRIN lens in close vicinity of its optical axis taken with the confocal setup; (c) transmission curve of integrated long-pass filters from Fig. 1; (d) fluorescence of GRIN lens under 532 nm laser excitation (blue curve), a few NV0 and NV defect centers collected in configurations I and II (red curve and black curve, respectively; see Fig. 4).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Schematic of configuration I, when excitation and fluorescence collection is performed via the air objective; (b) schematic of configuration II, when fluorescence collection is realized via the GRIN lens collection system and a single mode fiber; (c) measured g(2)(0)=0.21 taken via configuration I for a single NV defect center; (d) g(2)(0)=0.36 of the same defect center measured in configuration II. g(2)(0)<0.5 indicates single-photon character of the measured fluorescence light. The red curves are fits according to a three level model [6]. (e),(f) Plot of the measured single-photon counts as function of laser excitation intensity in configurations I and II of 146kcts/s and 5kcts/s, respectively. The red lines are fits to the experimental data [6].

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