Abstract

We report the demonstration of single-mode AgClxBr1x strip waveguides for the mid-infrared (MIR). The waveguides were made by the deposition of AgClxBr1x layers on top of a SiSiO2 substrate, followed by photolithographic and lift-off processing. The propagation losses of 20dB/cm were measured at λ=10.6μm using the cut-back method. The development of these waveguides is a crucial step toward realizing AgClxBr1x MIR integrated optical circuits, which would be used for applications such as chemical sensing and stellar interferometry.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Zayats and J. Ofek, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Science, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel, T. Lewi and A. Katzir are preparing a manuscript to be called, “Refractive index dispersion measurements in mixed silver halides.”
  15. BeamPROP by Rsoft Design Group, http://www.rsoftdesign.com .
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    [CrossRef]

2011 (3)

2010 (3)

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

S.-S. Kim, C. Young, and B. Mizaikoff, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 390, 231 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Labadie, P. Kern, P. Labeye, E. LeCoarer, C. Vigreux-Bercovici, A. Pradel, J. E. Broquin, and V. Kirschner, Adv. Space Res. 41, 1975 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

T. Lewi, S. Shalem, A. Tsun, and A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

Y. Lavi, A. Millo, and A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mücke, and B. Jänker, Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

R. J. Deri and E. Kapon, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 626 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Abergel, A.

I. Gabay, A. Abergel, T. Vasilyev, Y. Rabi, D. M. Fliss, and A. Katzir, Lasers Surg. Med. 43, 907 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Allen, P. J.

Anheier, J. N. C.

Arezki, B.

Asher, W.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Barillot, M.

Barthélémy, E.

Bastard, L.

Broquin, J. E.

L. Labadie, P. Kern, P. Labeye, E. LeCoarer, C. Vigreux-Bercovici, A. Pradel, J. E. Broquin, and V. Kirschner, Adv. Space Res. 41, 1975 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Broquin, J.-E.

Dekel, B.

B. Dekel and A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Deri, R. J.

R. J. Deri and E. Kapon, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 626 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fedorov, V. V.

Fliss, D. M.

I. Gabay, A. Abergel, T. Vasilyev, Y. Rabi, D. M. Fliss, and A. Katzir, Lasers Surg. Med. 43, 907 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gabay, I.

I. Gabay, A. Abergel, T. Vasilyev, Y. Rabi, D. M. Fliss, and A. Katzir, Lasers Surg. Med. 43, 907 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gapontsev, V. P.

Geng, J.

Grille, R.

Hô, N.

Hochberg, M.

Ilic, R.

Jänker, B.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mücke, and B. Jänker, Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, S.

Kapon, E.

R. J. Deri and E. Kapon, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 626 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Katzir, A.

I. Gabay, A. Abergel, T. Vasilyev, Y. Rabi, D. M. Fliss, and A. Katzir, Lasers Surg. Med. 43, 907 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Dekel and A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Grille, G. Martin, L. Labadie, B. Arezki, P. Kern, T. Lewi, A. Tsun, and A. Katzir, Opt. Express 17, 12516 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Lewi, S. Shalem, A. Tsun, and A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lavi, A. Millo, and A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Zayats and J. Ofek, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Science, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel, T. Lewi and A. Katzir are preparing a manuscript to be called, “Refractive index dispersion measurements in mixed silver halides.”

Kern, P.

R. Grille, G. Martin, L. Labadie, B. Arezki, P. Kern, T. Lewi, A. Tsun, and A. Katzir, Opt. Express 17, 12516 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Labadie, P. Kern, P. Labeye, E. LeCoarer, C. Vigreux-Bercovici, A. Pradel, J. E. Broquin, and V. Kirschner, Adv. Space Res. 41, 1975 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-S.

S.-S. Kim, C. Young, and B. Mizaikoff, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 390, 231 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kirschner, V.

L. Labadie, P. Kern, P. Labeye, E. LeCoarer, C. Vigreux-Bercovici, A. Pradel, J. E. Broquin, and V. Kirschner, Adv. Space Res. 41, 1975 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kormann, R.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mücke, and B. Jänker, Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Krishnaswami, K.

Labadie, L.

R. Grille, G. Martin, L. Labadie, B. Arezki, P. Kern, T. Lewi, A. Tsun, and A. Katzir, Opt. Express 17, 12516 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Labadie, P. Kern, P. Labeye, E. LeCoarer, C. Vigreux-Bercovici, A. Pradel, J. E. Broquin, and V. Kirschner, Adv. Space Res. 41, 1975 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Labeye, P.

L. Labadie, P. Kern, P. Labeye, E. LeCoarer, C. Vigreux-Bercovici, A. Pradel, J. E. Broquin, and V. Kirschner, Adv. Space Res. 41, 1975 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lavi, Y.

Y. Lavi, A. Millo, and A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

LeCoarer, E.

L. Labadie, P. Kern, P. Labeye, E. LeCoarer, C. Vigreux-Bercovici, A. Pradel, J. E. Broquin, and V. Kirschner, Adv. Space Res. 41, 1975 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lewi, T.

R. Grille, G. Martin, L. Labadie, B. Arezki, P. Kern, T. Lewi, A. Tsun, and A. Katzir, Opt. Express 17, 12516 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Lewi, S. Shalem, A. Tsun, and A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Zayats and J. Ofek, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Science, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel, T. Lewi and A. Katzir are preparing a manuscript to be called, “Refractive index dispersion measurements in mixed silver halides.”

Lucas, P.

Luo, T.

Martin, G.

Martyshkin, D. V.

Maurer, K.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mücke, and B. Jänker, Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ménard, S.

Millo, A.

Y. Lavi, A. Millo, and A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mirov, M. S.

Mirov, S. B.

Mizaikoff, B.

S.-S. Kim, C. Young, and B. Mizaikoff, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 390, 231 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moskalev, I. S.

Mücke, R.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mücke, and B. Jänker, Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Myers, T. L.

Ofek, J.

A. Zayats and J. Ofek, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Science, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel, T. Lewi and A. Katzir are preparing a manuscript to be called, “Refractive index dispersion measurements in mixed silver halides.”

Parent, G.

Penkov, B.

Phillips, M. C.

Pradel, A.

C. Vigreux, E. Barthélémy, L. Bastard, J.-E. Broquin, M. Barillot, S. Ménard, G. Parent, and A. Pradel, Opt. Lett. 36, 2922 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Labadie, P. Kern, P. Labeye, E. LeCoarer, C. Vigreux-Bercovici, A. Pradel, J. E. Broquin, and V. Kirschner, Adv. Space Res. 41, 1975 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qiao, H.

Rabi, Y.

I. Gabay, A. Abergel, T. Vasilyev, Y. Rabi, D. M. Fliss, and A. Katzir, Lasers Surg. Med. 43, 907 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Riley, B. J.

Shalem, S.

T. Lewi, S. Shalem, A. Tsun, and A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Slemr, F.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mücke, and B. Jänker, Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Spott, A.

Tsun, A.

Vasilyev, T.

I. Gabay, A. Abergel, T. Vasilyev, Y. Rabi, D. M. Fliss, and A. Katzir, Lasers Surg. Med. 43, 907 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vigreux, C.

Vigreux-Bercovici, C.

L. Labadie, P. Kern, P. Labeye, E. LeCoarer, C. Vigreux-Bercovici, A. Pradel, J. E. Broquin, and V. Kirschner, Adv. Space Res. 41, 1975 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Werle, P.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mücke, and B. Jänker, Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z.

Young, C.

S.-S. Kim, C. Young, and B. Mizaikoff, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 390, 231 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zayats, A.

A. Zayats and J. Ofek, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Science, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel, T. Lewi and A. Katzir are preparing a manuscript to be called, “Refractive index dispersion measurements in mixed silver halides.”

Adv. Space Res. (1)

L. Labadie, P. Kern, P. Labeye, E. LeCoarer, C. Vigreux-Bercovici, A. Pradel, J. E. Broquin, and V. Kirschner, Adv. Space Res. 41, 1975 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (1)

S.-S. Kim, C. Young, and B. Mizaikoff, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 390, 231 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

Y. Lavi, A. Millo, and A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Lewi, S. Shalem, A. Tsun, and A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Dekel and A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. J. Deri and E. Kapon, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 626 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

I. Gabay, A. Abergel, T. Vasilyev, Y. Rabi, D. M. Fliss, and A. Katzir, Lasers Surg. Med. 43, 907 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mücke, and B. Jänker, Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Other (2)

A. Zayats and J. Ofek, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Science, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel, T. Lewi and A. Katzir are preparing a manuscript to be called, “Refractive index dispersion measurements in mixed silver halides.”

BeamPROP by Rsoft Design Group, http://www.rsoftdesign.com .

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic drawing of the waveguide structure, (b) the effective index dependence of the first modes on the strip height h, (c) the field distribution of the TE0 and TE1 modes for h=6μm, (d) the effective index dispersion of the TE0, TE1, TM0, and TM1 modes for strip dimensions W=10μm and h=6μm. The refractive indices of the strip (ng) and the substrate (nsub) are also shown and indicate the upper and lower guiding limits.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Microscope image (top view) of the strip waveguide after lift-off processing, (b) SEM image of the strip waveguide end face after cleaving.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Thermal images of the waveguide output facet (a) without injecting light and (b) when injecting light into the strip; (c) waveguide loss measurements.

Equations (2)

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ng2(λ)=4.6890.173λ2+0.133λ2λ2(31.4)2(AgBr),
nsub2(λ)=3.9040.076λ2+1.93λ2λ2(59.4)2(AgCl).

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