Abstract

A grating-coupled surface plasmon resonance (GCSPR) technique based on polarization modulation in conical mounting is presented. A metallic grating is azimuthally rotated to support double-surface plasmon polariton excitation and exploit the consequent sensitivity enhancement. Corresponding to the resonance polar angle, a polarization scan of incident light is performed, and reflectivity data are collected before and after functionalization with a dodecanethiol self-assembled monolayer. The output signal exhibits a harmonic dependence on polarization, and the phase term is used as a parameter for sensing. This technique offers the possibility of designing extremely compact, fast, and cheap high-resolution plasmonic sensors based on GCSPR.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988).
  2. S. A. Maier, ed., Plasmonics—Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).
  3. J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. Kretschmann, Z. Phys. 241, 313 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Homola, Surface Plasmon Resonance Based Sensors (Springer, 2006).
  6. R. Karlsson and R. Stahlberg, Anal. Biochem. 228, 274 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Homola, I. Koudela, and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 54, 16 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. X. D. Hoa, A. G. Kirk, and M. Tabrizian, Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 151 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. H. Yoon, M. L. Shuler, and S. J. Kim, Opt. Express 14, 4842 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. W. Unfricht, S. L. Colpitts, S. M. Fernandez, and M. A. Lynes, Proteomics 5, 4432 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Dostalek, J. Homola, and M. Miler, Sens. Actuators B 107, 154 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. J. Alleyne, A. G. Kirk, R. C. McPhedran, N. A. P. Nicorovici, and D. Maystre, Opt. Express 15, 8163 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. O. Telezhnikova and J. Homola, Opt. Lett. 31, 3339 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. Romanato, K. H. Lee, H. K. Kang, C. C. Wong, Y. Zong, and W. Knoll, Phys. Rev. B 77, 245435 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. Romanato, K. H. Lee, H. K. Kang, G. Ruffato, and C. C. Wong, Opt. Express 17, 12145 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. F. Romanato, K. H. Lee, G. Ruffato, and C. C. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111103 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. Zacco, F. Romanato, A. Sonato, D. Sammito, G. Ruffato, M. Morpurgo, D. Silvestri, M. Carli, P. Schiavuta, and G. Brusatin, Microelectron. Eng. 88, 1898 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  18. X. F. Ang, F. Y. Li, W. L. Tan, Z. Chen, and C. C. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 061913 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. Johansen, R. Stalberg, I. Lundstrom, and B. Liedberg, Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 1630 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  20. L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, and S. S. Yee, Langmuir 14, 5636 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. D. Bain, E. B. Troughton, Y. T. Tao, J. Evall, G. M. Whitesides, and R. G. Nuzzo, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 111, 321 (1989).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

G. Zacco, F. Romanato, A. Sonato, D. Sammito, G. Ruffato, M. Morpurgo, D. Silvestri, M. Carli, P. Schiavuta, and G. Brusatin, Microelectron. Eng. 88, 1898 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

F. Romanato, K. H. Lee, G. Ruffato, and C. C. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

F. Romanato, K. H. Lee, H. K. Kang, C. C. Wong, Y. Zong, and W. Knoll, Phys. Rev. B 77, 245435 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

C. J. Alleyne, A. G. Kirk, R. C. McPhedran, N. A. P. Nicorovici, and D. Maystre, Opt. Express 15, 8163 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Ang, F. Y. Li, W. L. Tan, Z. Chen, and C. C. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 061913 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Hoa, A. G. Kirk, and M. Tabrizian, Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 151 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

2005 (2)

D. W. Unfricht, S. L. Colpitts, S. M. Fernandez, and M. A. Lynes, Proteomics 5, 4432 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Dostalek, J. Homola, and M. Miler, Sens. Actuators B 107, 154 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

K. Johansen, R. Stalberg, I. Lundstrom, and B. Liedberg, Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 1630 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, I. Koudela, and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 54, 16 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, and S. S. Yee, Langmuir 14, 5636 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

R. Karlsson and R. Stahlberg, Anal. Biochem. 228, 274 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

C. D. Bain, E. B. Troughton, Y. T. Tao, J. Evall, G. M. Whitesides, and R. G. Nuzzo, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 111, 321 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

E. Kretschmann, Z. Phys. 241, 313 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Alleyne, C. J.

Ang, X. F.

X. F. Ang, F. Y. Li, W. L. Tan, Z. Chen, and C. C. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 061913 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bain, C. D.

C. D. Bain, E. B. Troughton, Y. T. Tao, J. Evall, G. M. Whitesides, and R. G. Nuzzo, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 111, 321 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Brusatin, G.

G. Zacco, F. Romanato, A. Sonato, D. Sammito, G. Ruffato, M. Morpurgo, D. Silvestri, M. Carli, P. Schiavuta, and G. Brusatin, Microelectron. Eng. 88, 1898 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, C. T.

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, and S. S. Yee, Langmuir 14, 5636 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carli, M.

G. Zacco, F. Romanato, A. Sonato, D. Sammito, G. Ruffato, M. Morpurgo, D. Silvestri, M. Carli, P. Schiavuta, and G. Brusatin, Microelectron. Eng. 88, 1898 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

X. F. Ang, F. Y. Li, W. L. Tan, Z. Chen, and C. C. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 061913 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chinowsky, T. M.

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, and S. S. Yee, Langmuir 14, 5636 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Colpitts, S. L.

D. W. Unfricht, S. L. Colpitts, S. M. Fernandez, and M. A. Lynes, Proteomics 5, 4432 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dostalek, J.

J. Dostalek, J. Homola, and M. Miler, Sens. Actuators B 107, 154 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Evall, J.

C. D. Bain, E. B. Troughton, Y. T. Tao, J. Evall, G. M. Whitesides, and R. G. Nuzzo, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 111, 321 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, S. M.

D. W. Unfricht, S. L. Colpitts, S. M. Fernandez, and M. A. Lynes, Proteomics 5, 4432 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gauglitz, G.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hoa, X. D.

X. D. Hoa, A. G. Kirk, and M. Tabrizian, Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 151 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

O. Telezhnikova and J. Homola, Opt. Lett. 31, 3339 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Dostalek, J. Homola, and M. Miler, Sens. Actuators B 107, 154 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, I. Koudela, and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 54, 16 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, Surface Plasmon Resonance Based Sensors (Springer, 2006).

Johansen, K.

K. Johansen, R. Stalberg, I. Lundstrom, and B. Liedberg, Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 1630 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jung, L. S.

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, and S. S. Yee, Langmuir 14, 5636 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kang, H. K.

F. Romanato, K. H. Lee, H. K. Kang, G. Ruffato, and C. C. Wong, Opt. Express 17, 12145 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Romanato, K. H. Lee, H. K. Kang, C. C. Wong, Y. Zong, and W. Knoll, Phys. Rev. B 77, 245435 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, R.

R. Karlsson and R. Stahlberg, Anal. Biochem. 228, 274 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. J.

Kirk, A. G.

Knoll, W.

F. Romanato, K. H. Lee, H. K. Kang, C. C. Wong, Y. Zong, and W. Knoll, Phys. Rev. B 77, 245435 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koudela, I.

J. Homola, I. Koudela, and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 54, 16 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kretschmann, E.

E. Kretschmann, Z. Phys. 241, 313 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. H.

F. Romanato, K. H. Lee, G. Ruffato, and C. C. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Romanato, K. H. Lee, H. K. Kang, G. Ruffato, and C. C. Wong, Opt. Express 17, 12145 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Romanato, K. H. Lee, H. K. Kang, C. C. Wong, Y. Zong, and W. Knoll, Phys. Rev. B 77, 245435 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, F. Y.

X. F. Ang, F. Y. Li, W. L. Tan, Z. Chen, and C. C. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 061913 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liedberg, B.

K. Johansen, R. Stalberg, I. Lundstrom, and B. Liedberg, Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 1630 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lundstrom, I.

K. Johansen, R. Stalberg, I. Lundstrom, and B. Liedberg, Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 1630 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lynes, M. A.

D. W. Unfricht, S. L. Colpitts, S. M. Fernandez, and M. A. Lynes, Proteomics 5, 4432 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mar, M. N.

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, and S. S. Yee, Langmuir 14, 5636 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Maystre, D.

McPhedran, R. C.

Miler, M.

J. Dostalek, J. Homola, and M. Miler, Sens. Actuators B 107, 154 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Morpurgo, M.

G. Zacco, F. Romanato, A. Sonato, D. Sammito, G. Ruffato, M. Morpurgo, D. Silvestri, M. Carli, P. Schiavuta, and G. Brusatin, Microelectron. Eng. 88, 1898 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nicorovici, N. A. P.

Nuzzo, R. G.

C. D. Bain, E. B. Troughton, Y. T. Tao, J. Evall, G. M. Whitesides, and R. G. Nuzzo, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 111, 321 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

Romanato, F.

G. Zacco, F. Romanato, A. Sonato, D. Sammito, G. Ruffato, M. Morpurgo, D. Silvestri, M. Carli, P. Schiavuta, and G. Brusatin, Microelectron. Eng. 88, 1898 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Romanato, K. H. Lee, G. Ruffato, and C. C. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Romanato, K. H. Lee, H. K. Kang, G. Ruffato, and C. C. Wong, Opt. Express 17, 12145 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Romanato, K. H. Lee, H. K. Kang, C. C. Wong, Y. Zong, and W. Knoll, Phys. Rev. B 77, 245435 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ruffato, G.

G. Zacco, F. Romanato, A. Sonato, D. Sammito, G. Ruffato, M. Morpurgo, D. Silvestri, M. Carli, P. Schiavuta, and G. Brusatin, Microelectron. Eng. 88, 1898 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Romanato, K. H. Lee, G. Ruffato, and C. C. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Romanato, K. H. Lee, H. K. Kang, G. Ruffato, and C. C. Wong, Opt. Express 17, 12145 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sammito, D.

G. Zacco, F. Romanato, A. Sonato, D. Sammito, G. Ruffato, M. Morpurgo, D. Silvestri, M. Carli, P. Schiavuta, and G. Brusatin, Microelectron. Eng. 88, 1898 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schiavuta, P.

G. Zacco, F. Romanato, A. Sonato, D. Sammito, G. Ruffato, M. Morpurgo, D. Silvestri, M. Carli, P. Schiavuta, and G. Brusatin, Microelectron. Eng. 88, 1898 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shuler, M. L.

Silvestri, D.

G. Zacco, F. Romanato, A. Sonato, D. Sammito, G. Ruffato, M. Morpurgo, D. Silvestri, M. Carli, P. Schiavuta, and G. Brusatin, Microelectron. Eng. 88, 1898 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sonato, A.

G. Zacco, F. Romanato, A. Sonato, D. Sammito, G. Ruffato, M. Morpurgo, D. Silvestri, M. Carli, P. Schiavuta, and G. Brusatin, Microelectron. Eng. 88, 1898 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stahlberg, R.

R. Karlsson and R. Stahlberg, Anal. Biochem. 228, 274 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stalberg, R.

K. Johansen, R. Stalberg, I. Lundstrom, and B. Liedberg, Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 1630 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tabrizian, M.

X. D. Hoa, A. G. Kirk, and M. Tabrizian, Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 151 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tan, W. L.

X. F. Ang, F. Y. Li, W. L. Tan, Z. Chen, and C. C. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 061913 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tao, Y. T.

C. D. Bain, E. B. Troughton, Y. T. Tao, J. Evall, G. M. Whitesides, and R. G. Nuzzo, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 111, 321 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Telezhnikova, O.

Troughton, E. B.

C. D. Bain, E. B. Troughton, Y. T. Tao, J. Evall, G. M. Whitesides, and R. G. Nuzzo, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 111, 321 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Unfricht, D. W.

D. W. Unfricht, S. L. Colpitts, S. M. Fernandez, and M. A. Lynes, Proteomics 5, 4432 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Whitesides, G. M.

C. D. Bain, E. B. Troughton, Y. T. Tao, J. Evall, G. M. Whitesides, and R. G. Nuzzo, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 111, 321 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wong, C. C.

F. Romanato, K. H. Lee, G. Ruffato, and C. C. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Romanato, K. H. Lee, H. K. Kang, G. Ruffato, and C. C. Wong, Opt. Express 17, 12145 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Romanato, K. H. Lee, H. K. Kang, C. C. Wong, Y. Zong, and W. Knoll, Phys. Rev. B 77, 245435 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Ang, F. Y. Li, W. L. Tan, Z. Chen, and C. C. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 061913 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yee, S. S.

J. Homola, I. Koudela, and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 54, 16 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, and S. S. Yee, Langmuir 14, 5636 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, K. H.

Zacco, G.

G. Zacco, F. Romanato, A. Sonato, D. Sammito, G. Ruffato, M. Morpurgo, D. Silvestri, M. Carli, P. Schiavuta, and G. Brusatin, Microelectron. Eng. 88, 1898 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zong, Y.

F. Romanato, K. H. Lee, H. K. Kang, C. C. Wong, Y. Zong, and W. Knoll, Phys. Rev. B 77, 245435 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Biochem. (1)

R. Karlsson and R. Stahlberg, Anal. Biochem. 228, 274 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

F. Romanato, K. H. Lee, G. Ruffato, and C. C. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Ang, F. Y. Li, W. L. Tan, Z. Chen, and C. C. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 061913 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

X. D. Hoa, A. G. Kirk, and M. Tabrizian, Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 151 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

C. D. Bain, E. B. Troughton, Y. T. Tao, J. Evall, G. M. Whitesides, and R. G. Nuzzo, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 111, 321 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, and S. S. Yee, Langmuir 14, 5636 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

K. Johansen, R. Stalberg, I. Lundstrom, and B. Liedberg, Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 1630 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

G. Zacco, F. Romanato, A. Sonato, D. Sammito, G. Ruffato, M. Morpurgo, D. Silvestri, M. Carli, P. Schiavuta, and G. Brusatin, Microelectron. Eng. 88, 1898 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

F. Romanato, K. H. Lee, H. K. Kang, C. C. Wong, Y. Zong, and W. Knoll, Phys. Rev. B 77, 245435 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Proteomics (1)

D. W. Unfricht, S. L. Colpitts, S. M. Fernandez, and M. A. Lynes, Proteomics 5, 4432 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (3)

J. Dostalek, J. Homola, and M. Miler, Sens. Actuators B 107, 154 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, I. Koudela, and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 54, 16 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. (1)

E. Kretschmann, Z. Phys. 241, 313 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

J. Homola, Surface Plasmon Resonance Based Sensors (Springer, 2006).

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

S. A. Maier, ed., Plasmonics—Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic representation of the setup; (b) reflectivity for polar angle scan in the range from 25 to 38 deg, step 0.1 deg, at λ=675nm and azimuth φ=40deg for varying incident polarization α in the range from 0 to 180 deg, step 30 deg; and (c) reflectivity minima as a function of polarization and fit curve [Eq. (2)].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Reflectivity for angular scan in the range from 15 to 75 deg, step 0.2 deg, at λ=625nm (blue curves) and λ=635nm (red curves), azimuth φ=57.8deg, incident polarization α=140deg, before (solid curves) and after (dashed curves) functionalization with C12.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Polarization scan for λ=625nm [blue curves, I dip (θ=30.8deg); green curves, II dip (θ+55.1deg)] and λ=635nm [red curves, merged dips (θ=44.3deg)]; azimuth φ=57.8deg, before (solid curves) and after (dashed curves). C12, coating. Inset, phase shifts Δα0.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Estimated Refractive Index Sensitivity S and Resolution σ for Angular (Sθ, σn,θ) and Polarization (Sα, σn,α) Interrogation in the Considered Setup at Incident Wavelengths λ=625nm (I and II Dip) and λ=635nm (Merged Dips)a

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

θ±=arcsin(λΛcosφ±n2εMn2+εM(λΛsinφ)2),
Rmin=f0f1cos(2α+α0),
tanαopt=tanφcosθres.

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