Abstract

We demonstrate a method for substantially improving the axial resolution of terahertz time-of-flight measurements by analyzing the time-dependent polarization direction of an elliptically polarized single-cycle terahertz electromagnetic (T-ray) pulse. We show that, at its most sensitive, the technique has an axial resolution of λ/1000 (<1μm) with a subsecond measurement time, and very clear T-ray topographic images are obtained. Such a very high axial resolution of the T-ray topography opens the way for novel industrial and biomedical applications such as fine metalworking and corneal inspection in a safe manner.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2012 (1)

N. Yasumatsu and S. Watanabe, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 023104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J. P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 057003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Ortiz, D. Siedlecki, P. Perez-Merino, N. Chia, A. de Castro, M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, and S. Marcos, Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 3232 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Zhang, H. Zhong, C. Deng, C. L. Zhang, and Y. J. Zhao, Opt. Commun. 284, 4356 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

S. Wang and X. C. Zhang, J. Phys. D 37, R1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

J. L. Johnson, T. D. Dorney, and D. M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Abbot, D.

am Weg, C.

Bennett, D. B.

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J. P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 057003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Boivin, L.

Brown, E. R.

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J. P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 057003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chia, N.

Cui, Y.

Culjat, M. O.

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J. P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 057003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

de Castro, A.

de Maagt, P.

Deng, C.

L. L. Zhang, H. Zhong, C. Deng, C. L. Zhang, and Y. J. Zhao, Opt. Commun. 284, 4356 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dorney, T. D.

J. L. Johnson, T. D. Dorney, and D. M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Doyle, D.

Ferguson, B.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Geckeler, R. D.

Gray, D.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Grundfest, W. S.

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J. P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 057003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hils, B.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hubschman, J. P.

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J. P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 057003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hunsche, S.

Ichino, S.

Jinno, H.

Johnson, J. L.

J. L. Johnson, T. D. Dorney, and D. M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, R. D.

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J. P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 057003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kasai, S.

Kawase, K.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Loeffler, T.

Marcos, S.

Mittleman, D. M.

J. L. Johnson, T. D. Dorney, and D. M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Mittleman, S. Hunsche, L. Boivin, and M. C. Nuss, Opt. Lett. 22, 904 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nishizawa, N.

Nuss, M. C.

Ohtake, H.

Ortiz, S.

Ouchi, T.

Perez-Merino, P.

Planken, P. C. M.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Roskos, H. G.

Sassoon, D. J.

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J. P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 057003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Siedlecki, D.

Singh, R. S.

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J. P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 057003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Suizu, K.

Sun, W.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Szkulmowski, M.

Takayanagi, J.

Taylor, Z. D.

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J. P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 057003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tewari, P.

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J. P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 057003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, M. D.

Uchida, H.

van der Marel, W. A. M.

van der Valk, N. C. J.

von Spiegel, W.

Wang, S.

S. Wang and X. C. Zhang, J. Phys. D 37, R1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. H.

Watanabe, S.

N. Yasumatsu and S. Watanabe, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 023104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wojtkowski, M.

Yamashita, M.

Yasumatsu, N.

N. Yasumatsu and S. Watanabe, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 023104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C. L.

L. L. Zhang, H. Zhong, C. Deng, C. L. Zhang, and Y. J. Zhao, Opt. Commun. 284, 4356 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L. L.

L. L. Zhang, H. Zhong, C. Deng, C. L. Zhang, and Y. J. Zhao, Opt. Commun. 284, 4356 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, R.

Zhang, X. C.

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, Y. J.

L. L. Zhang, H. Zhong, C. Deng, C. L. Zhang, and Y. J. Zhao, Opt. Commun. 284, 4356 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, H.

L. L. Zhang, H. Zhong, C. Deng, C. L. Zhang, and Y. J. Zhao, Opt. Commun. 284, 4356 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. L. Johnson, T. D. Dorney, and D. M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J. P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 057003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

S. Wang and X. C. Zhang, J. Phys. D 37, R1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. L. Zhang, H. Zhong, C. Deng, C. L. Zhang, and Y. J. Zhao, Opt. Commun. 284, 4356 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

N. Yasumatsu and S. Watanabe, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 023104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Principle of the T-ray topography by time-domain polarimetry. (a) Schematic image of the system. (b), (c) Correspondence between the measured polarization direction of the elliptically polarized terahertz electric field in the (x, y) frame and the depth (z) of the sample surface.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Polar plot of the measured polarization directions and the amplitudes of the elliptically polarized terahertz beam reflecting from the aluminum sample obtained by changing the z position of the sample. Each data point (the open circles) represents the measured (Ex, Ey) value where we discretely change the z position of the sample every 10 μm. The solid curve is a guide for the eye. (b) The depth (z) dependence of the measured polarization direction obtained from Fig. 2(a) from z=240 to +80μm. The origin of the z position (z=0μm) is arbitrary. The solid curve is a guide for the eye.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Visible image of the sample. The relative depth values at three different points are also indicated. (b) Grayscale surface topographic image of the sample measured by the reflection-type THz-TDP. The shade of gray indicates the depth at each position as indicated by the grayscale bar on the right side of the figure. (c) Depth cross-sectional data along the black dashed line in Fig. 3(b). (d) Depth cross-sectional data along the white dashed line in Fig. 3(b). The solid lines are guides for the eye.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Surface topographic image of a spherical fused-silica optical lens (diameter ϕ=25.0mm) measured by the THz-TDP. Dots indicate the measured depth profiles inside the x-y plane every 1 mm. The curved surface shows a fitted sphere surface. The outermost points of the measured data slightly deviate from the fitted surface due to the presence of the lens mount and are removed when we perform the curve fitting.

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