Abstract

Rayleigh scattering is a measurement technique applicable for the determination of density distributions in various technical or natural flows. The current sensitivity limits of the Rayleigh scattering technique were investigated experimentally. It is shown that it is possible to measure density oscillations caused by acoustic pressure oscillations noninvasively and directly. Acoustical standing waves in a rectangular duct were investigated using Rayleigh scattering and compared to microphone measurements. The comparison showed a sensitivity of the Rayleigh scattering technique of 75 Pa (7·104kg/m3) and a precision of 14 Pa (1·104kg/m3). Therefore, it was also shown that Rayleigh scattering is applicable for acoustic measurements.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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A. F. Mielke, R. G. Seasholtz, K. A. Elam, and J. Panda, Exp. Fluids 39, 441 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

J. Panda and R. G. Seasholtz, J. Fluid Mech. 450, 97 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

R. B. Miles, W. R. Lempert, and J. N. Forkey, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, R33 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Miles, A. P. Yalin, Z. Tang, S. H. Zaidi, and J. N. Forkey, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 442 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. N. Forkey, W. R. Lempert, and R. B. Miles, Exp. Fluids 24, 151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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J. N. Forkey, N. D. Finkelstein, W. R. Lempert, and R. B. Miles, AIAA J. 34, 442 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1983 (2)

1979 (1)

T. M. Dyer, AIAA J. 17, 912 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Driscoll, J. F.

Dyer, T. M.

T. M. Dyer, AIAA J. 17, 912 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Elam, K. A.

A. F. Mielke, R. G. Seasholtz, K. A. Elam, and J. Panda, Exp. Fluids 39, 441 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ellis, R.

M. Moeser, S. Zimmermann, and R. Ellis, Engineering Acoustics: an Introduction to Noise Control, 2nd ed. (Springer, 2009).

Escoda, M. C.

M. C. Escoda and M. B. Long, AIAA J. 21, 81 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Finkelstein, N. D.

J. N. Forkey, N. D. Finkelstein, W. R. Lempert, and R. B. Miles, AIAA J. 34, 442 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Forkey, J. N.

R. B. Miles, A. P. Yalin, Z. Tang, S. H. Zaidi, and J. N. Forkey, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 442 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Miles, W. R. Lempert, and J. N. Forkey, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, R33 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Forkey, W. R. Lempert, and R. B. Miles, Exp. Fluids 24, 151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Forkey, N. D. Finkelstein, W. R. Lempert, and R. B. Miles, AIAA J. 34, 442 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Miles, J. N. Forkey, and W. R. Lempert, in Proceedings of AIAA 17th Aerospace Ground Testing Conference (AIAA, 1992), paper 92-3894.

Haumann, J.

Lee, S. A.

Leipertz, A.

Lempert, W. R.

R. B. Miles, W. R. Lempert, and J. N. Forkey, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, R33 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Forkey, W. R. Lempert, and R. B. Miles, Exp. Fluids 24, 151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Forkey, N. D. Finkelstein, W. R. Lempert, and R. B. Miles, AIAA J. 34, 442 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Miles, J. N. Forkey, and W. R. Lempert, in Proceedings of AIAA 17th Aerospace Ground Testing Conference (AIAA, 1992), paper 92-3894.

Long, M. B.

M. C. Escoda and M. B. Long, AIAA J. 21, 81 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Mielke, A. F.

A. F. Mielke, R. G. Seasholtz, K. A. Elam, and J. Panda, Exp. Fluids 39, 441 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miles, R. B.

R. B. Miles, A. P. Yalin, Z. Tang, S. H. Zaidi, and J. N. Forkey, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 442 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Miles, W. R. Lempert, and J. N. Forkey, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, R33 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Forkey, W. R. Lempert, and R. B. Miles, Exp. Fluids 24, 151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Forkey, N. D. Finkelstein, W. R. Lempert, and R. B. Miles, AIAA J. 34, 442 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Miles, J. N. Forkey, and W. R. Lempert, in Proceedings of AIAA 17th Aerospace Ground Testing Conference (AIAA, 1992), paper 92-3894.

Moeser, M.

M. Moeser, S. Zimmermann, and R. Ellis, Engineering Acoustics: an Introduction to Noise Control, 2nd ed. (Springer, 2009).

Panda, J.

A. F. Mielke, R. G. Seasholtz, K. A. Elam, and J. Panda, Exp. Fluids 39, 441 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Panda and R. G. Seasholtz, J. Fluid Mech. 450, 97 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Seasholtz and J. Panda, “Rayleigh scattering diagnostic for dynamic measurement of velocity and temperature,” NASA/TM—2001-210698 (AIAA-99-0641) (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2001).

Seasholtz, R. G.

A. F. Mielke, R. G. Seasholtz, K. A. Elam, and J. Panda, Exp. Fluids 39, 441 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Panda and R. G. Seasholtz, J. Fluid Mech. 450, 97 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Seasholtz and J. Panda, “Rayleigh scattering diagnostic for dynamic measurement of velocity and temperature,” NASA/TM—2001-210698 (AIAA-99-0641) (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2001).

She, C. Y.

Shimizu, H.

Sutton, J. A.

Tang, Z.

R. B. Miles, A. P. Yalin, Z. Tang, S. H. Zaidi, and J. N. Forkey, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 442 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yalin, A. P.

R. B. Miles, A. P. Yalin, Z. Tang, S. H. Zaidi, and J. N. Forkey, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 442 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zaidi, S. H.

R. B. Miles, A. P. Yalin, Z. Tang, S. H. Zaidi, and J. N. Forkey, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 442 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, S.

M. Moeser, S. Zimmermann, and R. Ellis, Engineering Acoustics: an Introduction to Noise Control, 2nd ed. (Springer, 2009).

AIAA J. (3)

J. N. Forkey, N. D. Finkelstein, W. R. Lempert, and R. B. Miles, AIAA J. 34, 442 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Dyer, AIAA J. 17, 912 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Escoda and M. B. Long, AIAA J. 21, 81 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Exp. Fluids (2)

A. F. Mielke, R. G. Seasholtz, K. A. Elam, and J. Panda, Exp. Fluids 39, 441 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Forkey, W. R. Lempert, and R. B. Miles, Exp. Fluids 24, 151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Fluid Mech. (1)

J. Panda and R. G. Seasholtz, J. Fluid Mech. 450, 97 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

R. B. Miles, W. R. Lempert, and J. N. Forkey, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, R33 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Miles, A. P. Yalin, Z. Tang, S. H. Zaidi, and J. N. Forkey, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 442 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (3)

M. Moeser, S. Zimmermann, and R. Ellis, Engineering Acoustics: an Introduction to Noise Control, 2nd ed. (Springer, 2009).

R. G. Seasholtz and J. Panda, “Rayleigh scattering diagnostic for dynamic measurement of velocity and temperature,” NASA/TM—2001-210698 (AIAA-99-0641) (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2001).

R. B. Miles, J. N. Forkey, and W. R. Lempert, in Proceedings of AIAA 17th Aerospace Ground Testing Conference (AIAA, 1992), paper 92-3894.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Sketch of the setup used to compare Rayleigh scattering measurements and microphone measurements of acoustical density oscillations.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Comparison of density amplitudes measured by Rayleigh scattering and pressure amplitudes calculated from five microphone signals via acoustic field decomposition for different pressure oscillation amplitudes.

Equations (4)

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Isp=I0π2ϵ02α2sin2χλ4R2.
Icoll=ηI0NΔVΔΩσΩΩ.
p=(A(x)eikx+B(x)eikx)eiωt.
p=γp¯ϱ¯ϱ,

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