Abstract

Molybdenum-doped lithium niobate crystals were grown under different polarization conditions and their holographic properties were investigated. In contrast to current dopants, hexavalent molybdenum prefers niobium sites. Thereby, holographic storage becomes possible from the ultraviolet to the visible with considerably lower response time. The response time of 0.5 mol. % Mo-doped LiNbO3 can be especially shortened to as small as 0.35 s with a still high saturation diffraction efficiency of about 60% at 351 nm. Molybdenum-doped lithium niobate thus is a promising candidate for all-color holographic storage applications.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2010 (1)

2009 (1)

F. Schirmer, M. Imlau, C. Merschjann, and B. Schoke, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21, 123201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

L. Dhar, Nat. Photon. 2, 403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, X. Zhang, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, Y. Kong, H. Liu, L. Sun, J. Xu, S. Chen, L. Zhang, Z. Huang, S. Liu, and G. Zhang, Solid State Commun. 141, 113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

P. Herth, T. Granzow, D. Schaniel, T. Woike, M. Imlau, and E. Krätzig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 067404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

E. P. Kokanyan, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and J. B. Gruber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Arizmendi, Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 253 (2004).
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2003 (1)

M. Haw, Nature 422, 556 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Hellemans, Science 286, 1502 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (5)

K. Buse, A. Adibi, and D. Psaltis, Nature 393, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Queisser and E. E. Haller, Science 281, 945 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Kip, Appl. Phys. B 67, 131 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Science 282, 1089 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. K. McMillen, T. D. Hudson, J. Wagner, and J. Singleton, Opt. Express 2, 491 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

Y. Kong, J. Wen, and H. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Psaltis and F. Mok, Sci. Am. 273, 70 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1983 (2)

J. L. Ketchum, K. L. Sweeney, L. E. Halliburton, and A. F. Armington, Phys. Lett. A 94, 450 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Devries, H. C. Yao, R. J. Baird, and H. S. Gandhi, J. Catal. 84, 8 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

G. Zhong, J. Jian, and Z. Wu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 631 (1980).

1975 (1)

S. O. Grim and L. J. Matienzo, Inorg. Chem. 14, 1014 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

W. Phillips, J. J. Amodei, and D. L. Staebler, RCA Rev. 33, 94 (1972).

Adibi, A.

K. Buse, A. Adibi, and D. Psaltis, Nature 393, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Akella, A.

L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Science 282, 1089 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Amodei, J. J.

W. Phillips, J. J. Amodei, and D. L. Staebler, RCA Rev. 33, 94 (1972).

Arizmendi, L.

L. Arizmendi, Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 253 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Armington, A. F.

J. L. Ketchum, K. L. Sweeney, L. E. Halliburton, and A. F. Armington, Phys. Lett. A 94, 450 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Baird, R. J.

J. E. Devries, H. C. Yao, R. J. Baird, and H. S. Gandhi, J. Catal. 84, 8 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Buse, K.

K. Buse, A. Adibi, and D. Psaltis, Nature 393, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

F. Liu, Y. Kong, W. Li, H. Liu, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, Opt. Lett. 35, 10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, Y. Kong, H. Liu, L. Sun, J. Xu, S. Chen, L. Zhang, Z. Huang, S. Liu, and G. Zhang, Solid State Commun. 141, 113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, X. Zhang, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cristiani, I.

E. P. Kokanyan, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and J. B. Gruber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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E. P. Kokanyan, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and J. B. Gruber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Devries, J. E.

J. E. Devries, H. C. Yao, R. J. Baird, and H. S. Gandhi, J. Catal. 84, 8 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Dhar, L.

L. Dhar, Nat. Photon. 2, 403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gandhi, H. S.

J. E. Devries, H. C. Yao, R. J. Baird, and H. S. Gandhi, J. Catal. 84, 8 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Granzow, T.

P. Herth, T. Granzow, D. Schaniel, T. Woike, M. Imlau, and E. Krätzig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 067404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grim, S. O.

S. O. Grim and L. J. Matienzo, Inorg. Chem. 14, 1014 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Gruber, J. B.

E. P. Kokanyan, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and J. B. Gruber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Haller, E. E.

H. J. Queisser and E. E. Haller, Science 281, 945 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Halliburton, L. E.

J. L. Ketchum, K. L. Sweeney, L. E. Halliburton, and A. F. Armington, Phys. Lett. A 94, 450 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Haw, M.

M. Haw, Nature 422, 556 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hellemans, A.

A. Hellemans, Science 286, 1502 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Herth, P.

P. Herth, T. Granzow, D. Schaniel, T. Woike, M. Imlau, and E. Krätzig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 067404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hesselink, L.

L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Science 282, 1089 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z.

X. Li, Y. Kong, H. Liu, L. Sun, J. Xu, S. Chen, L. Zhang, Z. Huang, S. Liu, and G. Zhang, Solid State Commun. 141, 113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hudson, T. D.

Imlau, M.

F. Schirmer, M. Imlau, C. Merschjann, and B. Schoke, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21, 123201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Herth, T. Granzow, D. Schaniel, T. Woike, M. Imlau, and E. Krätzig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 067404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jian, J.

G. Zhong, J. Jian, and Z. Wu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 631 (1980).

Ketchum, J. L.

J. L. Ketchum, K. L. Sweeney, L. E. Halliburton, and A. F. Armington, Phys. Lett. A 94, 450 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kip, D.

D. Kip, Appl. Phys. B 67, 131 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kokanyan, E. P.

E. P. Kokanyan, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and J. B. Gruber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kong, Y.

F. Liu, Y. Kong, W. Li, H. Liu, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, Opt. Lett. 35, 10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, Y. Kong, H. Liu, L. Sun, J. Xu, S. Chen, L. Zhang, Z. Huang, S. Liu, and G. Zhang, Solid State Commun. 141, 113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, X. Zhang, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kong, J. Wen, and H. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Krätzig, E.

P. Herth, T. Granzow, D. Schaniel, T. Woike, M. Imlau, and E. Krätzig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 067404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lande, D.

L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Science 282, 1089 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

Li, X.

X. Li, Y. Kong, H. Liu, L. Sun, J. Xu, S. Chen, L. Zhang, Z. Huang, S. Liu, and G. Zhang, Solid State Commun. 141, 113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A.

L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Science 282, 1089 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F.

Liu, H.

F. Liu, Y. Kong, W. Li, H. Liu, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, Opt. Lett. 35, 10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Liu, Y. Kong, W. Li, H. Liu, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, Opt. Lett. 35, 10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, Y. Kong, H. Liu, L. Sun, J. Xu, S. Chen, L. Zhang, Z. Huang, S. Liu, and G. Zhang, Solid State Commun. 141, 113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, X. Zhang, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

F. Liu, Y. Kong, W. Li, H. Liu, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, Opt. Lett. 35, 10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, Y. Kong, H. Liu, L. Sun, J. Xu, S. Chen, L. Zhang, Z. Huang, S. Liu, and G. Zhang, Solid State Commun. 141, 113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, X. Zhang, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Matienzo, L. J.

S. O. Grim and L. J. Matienzo, Inorg. Chem. 14, 1014 (1975).
[CrossRef]

McMillen, D. K.

Merschjann, C.

F. Schirmer, M. Imlau, C. Merschjann, and B. Schoke, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21, 123201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mok, F.

D. Psaltis and F. Mok, Sci. Am. 273, 70 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Neurgaonkar, R. R.

L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Science 282, 1089 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Orlov, S. S.

L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Science 282, 1089 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, W.

W. Phillips, J. J. Amodei, and D. L. Staebler, RCA Rev. 33, 94 (1972).

Pryalkin, V. J.

Psaltis, D.

K. Buse, A. Adibi, and D. Psaltis, Nature 393, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Psaltis and F. Mok, Sci. Am. 273, 70 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Queisser, H. J.

H. J. Queisser and E. E. Haller, Science 281, 945 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Razzari, L.

E. P. Kokanyan, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and J. B. Gruber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rubinina, M. M.

Rupp, R.

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, X. Zhang, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schaniel, D.

P. Herth, T. Granzow, D. Schaniel, T. Woike, M. Imlau, and E. Krätzig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 067404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schirmer, F.

F. Schirmer, M. Imlau, C. Merschjann, and B. Schoke, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21, 123201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schoke, B.

F. Schirmer, M. Imlau, C. Merschjann, and B. Schoke, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21, 123201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Singleton, J.

Staebler, D. L.

W. Phillips, J. J. Amodei, and D. L. Staebler, RCA Rev. 33, 94 (1972).

Sun, L.

X. Li, Y. Kong, H. Liu, L. Sun, J. Xu, S. Chen, L. Zhang, Z. Huang, S. Liu, and G. Zhang, Solid State Commun. 141, 113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sweeney, K. L.

J. L. Ketchum, K. L. Sweeney, L. E. Halliburton, and A. F. Armington, Phys. Lett. A 94, 450 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Volk, T. R.

Wagner, J.

Wang, H.

Y. Kong, J. Wen, and H. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wen, J.

Y. Kong, J. Wen, and H. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Woike, T.

P. Herth, T. Granzow, D. Schaniel, T. Woike, M. Imlau, and E. Krätzig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 067404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z.

G. Zhong, J. Jian, and Z. Wu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 631 (1980).

Xu, J.

F. Liu, Y. Kong, W. Li, H. Liu, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, Opt. Lett. 35, 10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, Y. Kong, H. Liu, L. Sun, J. Xu, S. Chen, L. Zhang, Z. Huang, S. Liu, and G. Zhang, Solid State Commun. 141, 113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, X. Zhang, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yao, H. C.

J. E. Devries, H. C. Yao, R. J. Baird, and H. S. Gandhi, J. Catal. 84, 8 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

X. Li, Y. Kong, H. Liu, L. Sun, J. Xu, S. Chen, L. Zhang, Z. Huang, S. Liu, and G. Zhang, Solid State Commun. 141, 113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

X. Li, Y. Kong, H. Liu, L. Sun, J. Xu, S. Chen, L. Zhang, Z. Huang, S. Liu, and G. Zhang, Solid State Commun. 141, 113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, X. Zhang, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

F. Liu, Y. Kong, W. Li, H. Liu, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, Opt. Lett. 35, 10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, X. Zhang, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, G.

G. Zhong, J. Jian, and Z. Wu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 631 (1980).

Appl. Phys. B (1)

D. Kip, Appl. Phys. B 67, 131 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

Y. Kong, J. Wen, and H. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Kokanyan, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and J. B. Gruber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, X. Zhang, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Inorg. Chem. (1)

S. O. Grim and L. J. Matienzo, Inorg. Chem. 14, 1014 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Catal. (1)

J. E. Devries, H. C. Yao, R. J. Baird, and H. S. Gandhi, J. Catal. 84, 8 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

G. Zhong, J. Jian, and Z. Wu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 631 (1980).

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

F. Schirmer, M. Imlau, C. Merschjann, and B. Schoke, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21, 123201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (1)

L. Dhar, Nat. Photon. 2, 403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

K. Buse, A. Adibi, and D. Psaltis, Nature 393, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Haw, Nature 422, 556 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

J. L. Ketchum, K. L. Sweeney, L. E. Halliburton, and A. F. Armington, Phys. Lett. A 94, 450 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

P. Herth, T. Granzow, D. Schaniel, T. Woike, M. Imlau, and E. Krätzig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 067404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

L. Arizmendi, Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 253 (2004).
[CrossRef]

RCA Rev. (1)

W. Phillips, J. J. Amodei, and D. L. Staebler, RCA Rev. 33, 94 (1972).

Sci. Am. (1)

D. Psaltis and F. Mok, Sci. Am. 273, 70 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Science (3)

A. Hellemans, Science 286, 1502 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Queisser and E. E. Haller, Science 281, 945 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Science 282, 1089 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (1)

X. Li, Y. Kong, H. Liu, L. Sun, J. Xu, S. Chen, L. Zhang, Z. Huang, S. Liu, and G. Zhang, Solid State Commun. 141, 113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Photorefractive characteristics of LN:Mo crystals from UV to the visible. The light intensity is 320, 400, 400, and 3000mW/cm2 for 351, 488, 532, and 671 nm lasers, respectively. The hollow symbols are for LN:Fe0.03.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

UV-visible photorefractive characteristics of LN:Mo0.5 crystals polarized under various polarization currents for 15 min. The light intensity per beam is 320, 400, 400, and 3000mW/cm2 for 351, 488, 532, and 671 nm lasers, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

XPS spectra of LN:Mo. The experimental curve can be fitted to six peaks by the XPS Peaks software. These peaks could be divided into three groups: peaks 1 and 4, peaks 2 and 5, and peaks 3 and 6, corresponding to Mo ions as 4+, 5+, and 6+, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Absorption difference of LN:Mo relative to CLN: (a) LN:Mo with various doping concentration; (b) sample LN:Mo0.5 polarized under various current for 15 min; and (c) The fitting curve of LN:Mo0.5 polarized under 145 mA for 15 min, where the circles represent experimental data and the solid lines are fitting curves, the fitting peaks centered at about 326, 337, and 461 nm, respectively.

Metrics