Abstract

This Letter reports a fully packaged microelectromechanical system (MEMS) endoscopic catheter for forward imaging optical coherence tomography (OCT). Two-dimensional optical scanning of Lissajous patterns was realized by the orthogonal movement of two commercial aspherical glass lenses laterally mounted on two resonating electrostatic MEMS microstages at low operating voltages. The MEMS lens scanner was integrated on a printed circuit board and packaged with an aluminum housing, a gradient index fiber collimator, and an objective lens. A home-built spectral-domain OCT system with 60 kHz A-line acquisition rate was combined with the endoscopic MEMS catheter. Three-dimensional images of 256×256×995 voxels were directly reconstructed by mapping the A-line datasets along the Lissajous patterns. The endoscopic catheter can provide a new direction for forward endoscopic OCT imaging.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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1995

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, Nat. Med. 1, 970 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Aguirre, A. D.

Ahn, Y.-C.

Bancu, M. G.

Ben-Yakar, A.

Bernstein, J. J.

Boppart, S. A.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, N. J. Weissman, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 21, 543 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, Nat. Med. 1, 970 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bouma, B.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, Nat. Med. 1, 970 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bouma, B. E.

Brenner, M.

Brezinski, M. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, N. J. Weissman, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 21, 543 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Chen, Z.

Choe, S.-W.

Cobb, M. J.

de Boer, J. F.

Durr, N. J.

Fan, L.

Fedder, G. K.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

A. D. Aguirre, P. R. Hertz, Y. Chen, J. G. Fujimoto, W. Piyawattanametha, L. Fan, and M. C. Wu, Opt. Express 15, 2445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, N. J. Weissman, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 21, 543 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, Nat. Med. 1, 970 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Guo, S.

Hee, M.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, Nat. Med. 1, 970 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hertz, P. R.

Hoy, C. L.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Huo, L.

Jeong, K.-H.

Jung, W.

Kim, K. H.

Kimmey, M. B.

Lee, S.-W.

Lee, T. W.

Li, X.

Lin, C.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

Liu, X.

Maguluri, G. N.

McCormick, D. T.

Moon, S.

Mukai, D. S.

Pan, Y.

Park, B. H.

Park, H.-C.

Pitris, C.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Piyawattanametha, W.

Puliafito, C.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rogomentich, F. J.

Rubinstein, M.

Schuman, J.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sepehr, A.

Song, C.

Sorg, B. S.

Southern, J. F.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, N. J. Weissman, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 21, 543 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, Nat. Med. 1, 970 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Su, J.

Sun, J.

Swanson, E.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, Nat. Med. 1, 970 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G. J.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, N. J. Weissman, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 21, 543 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, Nat. Med. 1, 970 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tien, N. C.

Tran, P. H.

Weissman, N. J.

Wong, B.

Wong, B. J. F.

Wu, L.

Wu, M. C.

Wu, Y.

Xi, J.

Xie, H.

Yu, L.

Zhang, J.

Appl. Opt.

Nat. Med.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, Nat. Med. 1, 970 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Science

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Forward imaging OCT endoscopic catheter using MEMS lens scanner: (a) schematic diagram of the endoscopic MEMS catheter, (b) catheter assembly parts, (c) fully packaged endoscopic catheter (the outer dimension of the catheter is 7mm×7mm), (d) an enlarged view of the MEMS lens scanner (two scanning lenses are laterally mounted on top of the electrostatic MEMS actuators); and E, SEM image of a MEMS lens scanner. (The silicon fiber groove and the silicon lens holders assist precise optical alignment during the microassembly.)

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

3D SD-OCT image reconstruction sequence implementing the Lissajous-scanned endoscopic MEMS catheter. The driving signals of catheter (blue dashed line for x scanning and red line for y scanning) and the camera signals are simultaneously acquired by using the reference pulse train. The measured A-line data column set of camera signals was directly assigned at a specific location within a detection volume, which was inferred from the driving signals.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

3D SD-OCT image of a mouse ear obtained by the endoscopic catheter: e, epidermis; d, dermis; C, cartilage; and ct, connective tissue. (a) En-face OCT image and Lissajous trajectory (300 points). (b) Cross-sectional image along the Lissajous trajectory of 3000 points acquired within 50 ms (1 frame). (c) Reconstructed 3D SD-OCT image implementing the proposed imaging sequence. A 3D OCT image of 256×256×995 voxels was reconstructed with 150 k A-line samples (50 frames). A 2D cross-sectional image of x and y axes was extracted from the 3D volumetric image (in box). Solid line indicates 500 μm.

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