Abstract

We demonstrate an isotropic depolarizing channel with a controllable degree of depolarization. The depolarizer is composed of four birefringent crystals and half-wave plates. Quantum process tomography results of the depolarization effect on single photons agree well with the theoretical prediction. This depolarizer can be used to test quantum communication protocols with photons.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K. Böhm, P. Marten, K. Petermann, E. Weidel, and R. Ulrich, Electron. Lett. 17, 352 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. S. Wang, J. R. Costelloe, and R. H. Stolen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1449 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. Lyot, Ann. Observ. Astron. Phys. 8, 102 (1929).
  4. K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, P. G. Kwiat, and A. Zeilinger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4656 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. G. Kwiat, A. J. Berglund, J. B. Altepeter, and A. G. White, Science 290, 498 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Puentes, D. Voigt, A. Aiello, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Lett. 31, 2057 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. P. Almeida, F. de Melo, M. Hor-Meyll, A. Salles, S. P. Walborn, P. H. S. Ribeiro, and L. Davidovich, Science 316, 579 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Karpiński, C. Radzewicz, and K. Banaszek, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 668 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Shaham and H. S. Eisenberg, Phys. Rev. A 83, 022303 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Chiuri, V. Rosati, G. Vallone, S. Pa’dua, H. Imai, S. Giacomini, C. Macchiavello, and P. Mataloni, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 253602 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. B. Altepeter, E. R. Jeffrey, and P. G. Kwiat, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 52, 105 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. I. L. Chuang and M. A. Nielsen, J. Mod. Opt. 44, 2455 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Shaham and H. S. Eisenberg, Phys. Scr. T147, 014029 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. King and M. B. Ruskai, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 47, 192 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2012

A. Shaham and H. S. Eisenberg, Phys. Scr. T147, 014029 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

A. Shaham and H. S. Eisenberg, Phys. Rev. A 83, 022303 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Chiuri, V. Rosati, G. Vallone, S. Pa’dua, H. Imai, S. Giacomini, C. Macchiavello, and P. Mataloni, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 253602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

M. P. Almeida, F. de Melo, M. Hor-Meyll, A. Salles, S. P. Walborn, P. H. S. Ribeiro, and L. Davidovich, Science 316, 579 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

J. B. Altepeter, E. R. Jeffrey, and P. G. Kwiat, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 52, 105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

C. King and M. B. Ruskai, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 47, 192 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

P. G. Kwiat, A. J. Berglund, J. B. Altepeter, and A. G. White, Science 290, 498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. S. Wang, J. R. Costelloe, and R. H. Stolen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1449 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

I. L. Chuang and M. A. Nielsen, J. Mod. Opt. 44, 2455 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, P. G. Kwiat, and A. Zeilinger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1981

K. Böhm, P. Marten, K. Petermann, E. Weidel, and R. Ulrich, Electron. Lett. 17, 352 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1929

B. Lyot, Ann. Observ. Astron. Phys. 8, 102 (1929).

Aiello, A.

Almeida, M. P.

M. P. Almeida, F. de Melo, M. Hor-Meyll, A. Salles, S. P. Walborn, P. H. S. Ribeiro, and L. Davidovich, Science 316, 579 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Altepeter, J. B.

J. B. Altepeter, E. R. Jeffrey, and P. G. Kwiat, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 52, 105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kwiat, A. J. Berglund, J. B. Altepeter, and A. G. White, Science 290, 498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Banaszek, K.

Berglund, A. J.

P. G. Kwiat, A. J. Berglund, J. B. Altepeter, and A. G. White, Science 290, 498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Böhm, K.

K. Böhm, P. Marten, K. Petermann, E. Weidel, and R. Ulrich, Electron. Lett. 17, 352 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Chiuri, A.

A. Chiuri, V. Rosati, G. Vallone, S. Pa’dua, H. Imai, S. Giacomini, C. Macchiavello, and P. Mataloni, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 253602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, I. L.

I. L. Chuang and M. A. Nielsen, J. Mod. Opt. 44, 2455 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Costelloe, J. R.

J. S. Wang, J. R. Costelloe, and R. H. Stolen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1449 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Davidovich, L.

M. P. Almeida, F. de Melo, M. Hor-Meyll, A. Salles, S. P. Walborn, P. H. S. Ribeiro, and L. Davidovich, Science 316, 579 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Melo, F.

M. P. Almeida, F. de Melo, M. Hor-Meyll, A. Salles, S. P. Walborn, P. H. S. Ribeiro, and L. Davidovich, Science 316, 579 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eisenberg, H. S.

A. Shaham and H. S. Eisenberg, Phys. Scr. T147, 014029 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Shaham and H. S. Eisenberg, Phys. Rev. A 83, 022303 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Giacomini, S.

A. Chiuri, V. Rosati, G. Vallone, S. Pa’dua, H. Imai, S. Giacomini, C. Macchiavello, and P. Mataloni, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 253602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hor-Meyll, M.

M. P. Almeida, F. de Melo, M. Hor-Meyll, A. Salles, S. P. Walborn, P. H. S. Ribeiro, and L. Davidovich, Science 316, 579 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Imai, H.

A. Chiuri, V. Rosati, G. Vallone, S. Pa’dua, H. Imai, S. Giacomini, C. Macchiavello, and P. Mataloni, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 253602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jeffrey, E. R.

J. B. Altepeter, E. R. Jeffrey, and P. G. Kwiat, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 52, 105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Karpinski, M.

King, C.

C. King and M. B. Ruskai, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 47, 192 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kwiat, P. G.

J. B. Altepeter, E. R. Jeffrey, and P. G. Kwiat, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 52, 105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kwiat, A. J. Berglund, J. B. Altepeter, and A. G. White, Science 290, 498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, P. G. Kwiat, and A. Zeilinger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lyot, B.

B. Lyot, Ann. Observ. Astron. Phys. 8, 102 (1929).

Macchiavello, C.

A. Chiuri, V. Rosati, G. Vallone, S. Pa’dua, H. Imai, S. Giacomini, C. Macchiavello, and P. Mataloni, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 253602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Marten, P.

K. Böhm, P. Marten, K. Petermann, E. Weidel, and R. Ulrich, Electron. Lett. 17, 352 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Mataloni, P.

A. Chiuri, V. Rosati, G. Vallone, S. Pa’dua, H. Imai, S. Giacomini, C. Macchiavello, and P. Mataloni, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 253602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mattle, K.

K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, P. G. Kwiat, and A. Zeilinger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, M. A.

I. L. Chuang and M. A. Nielsen, J. Mod. Opt. 44, 2455 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pa’dua, S.

A. Chiuri, V. Rosati, G. Vallone, S. Pa’dua, H. Imai, S. Giacomini, C. Macchiavello, and P. Mataloni, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 253602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, K.

K. Böhm, P. Marten, K. Petermann, E. Weidel, and R. Ulrich, Electron. Lett. 17, 352 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Puentes, G.

Radzewicz, C.

Ribeiro, P. H. S.

M. P. Almeida, F. de Melo, M. Hor-Meyll, A. Salles, S. P. Walborn, P. H. S. Ribeiro, and L. Davidovich, Science 316, 579 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ribordy, G.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rosati, V.

A. Chiuri, V. Rosati, G. Vallone, S. Pa’dua, H. Imai, S. Giacomini, C. Macchiavello, and P. Mataloni, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 253602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ruskai, M. B.

C. King and M. B. Ruskai, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 47, 192 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Salles, A.

M. P. Almeida, F. de Melo, M. Hor-Meyll, A. Salles, S. P. Walborn, P. H. S. Ribeiro, and L. Davidovich, Science 316, 579 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shaham, A.

A. Shaham and H. S. Eisenberg, Phys. Scr. T147, 014029 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Shaham and H. S. Eisenberg, Phys. Rev. A 83, 022303 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stolen, R. H.

J. S. Wang, J. R. Costelloe, and R. H. Stolen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1449 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, W.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

K. Böhm, P. Marten, K. Petermann, E. Weidel, and R. Ulrich, Electron. Lett. 17, 352 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Vallone, G.

A. Chiuri, V. Rosati, G. Vallone, S. Pa’dua, H. Imai, S. Giacomini, C. Macchiavello, and P. Mataloni, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 253602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Voigt, D.

Walborn, S. P.

M. P. Almeida, F. de Melo, M. Hor-Meyll, A. Salles, S. P. Walborn, P. H. S. Ribeiro, and L. Davidovich, Science 316, 579 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. S.

J. S. Wang, J. R. Costelloe, and R. H. Stolen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1449 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Weidel, E.

K. Böhm, P. Marten, K. Petermann, E. Weidel, and R. Ulrich, Electron. Lett. 17, 352 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Weinfurter, H.

K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, P. G. Kwiat, and A. Zeilinger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

White, A. G.

P. G. Kwiat, A. J. Berglund, J. B. Altepeter, and A. G. White, Science 290, 498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Woerdman, J. P.

Zbinden, H.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zeilinger, A.

K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, P. G. Kwiat, and A. Zeilinger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.

J. B. Altepeter, E. R. Jeffrey, and P. G. Kwiat, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 52, 105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Observ. Astron. Phys.

B. Lyot, Ann. Observ. Astron. Phys. 8, 102 (1929).

Electron. Lett.

K. Böhm, P. Marten, K. Petermann, E. Weidel, and R. Ulrich, Electron. Lett. 17, 352 (1981).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. S. Wang, J. R. Costelloe, and R. H. Stolen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1449 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory

C. King and M. B. Ruskai, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 47, 192 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

I. L. Chuang and M. A. Nielsen, J. Mod. Opt. 44, 2455 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

A. Shaham and H. S. Eisenberg, Phys. Rev. A 83, 022303 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. Chiuri, V. Rosati, G. Vallone, S. Pa’dua, H. Imai, S. Giacomini, C. Macchiavello, and P. Mataloni, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 253602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, P. G. Kwiat, and A. Zeilinger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Scr.

A. Shaham and H. S. Eisenberg, Phys. Scr. T147, 014029 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Science

P. G. Kwiat, A. J. Berglund, J. B. Altepeter, and A. G. White, Science 290, 498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Almeida, F. de Melo, M. Hor-Meyll, A. Salles, S. P. Walborn, P. H. S. Ribeiro, and L. Davidovich, Science 316, 579 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Isotropic depolarizer: C1C4 are calcite crystals, where the axes’ direction denote the fast axis orientation of each crystal. θ1 and θ3 are the fixed HWP angles. θ2 is the rotatable HWP angle, which controls the amount of depolarization. (b) Experimental setup—see details in the main text. (c) Values of the radii R1 and R2=R3. The possible values of this configuration are within the yellow zone. The isotropic channel is represented by the black dashed line, the two crystal channel by the white dashed line, and the dephasing channel by R1=1.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimentally measured processes in the Poincaré sphere representation. The depolarization maps correspond to θ2 rotations of the second HWP at (a) 4°, (b) 15°, (c) 22°, and (d) 30°.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Eigenvalues λ1λ4 of the χ matrix as a function of the second HWP angle θ2. Theoretical predictions are presented as solid lines.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

tc<τ=LΔn/c,
E(ρ^)=m,nχmnE^mρ^E^n,
R1=cos22θ2sin22θ2cos24θ1,R2=R3=cos22θ20.5sin22θ2sin24θ1.
D=13+23cos4θ2.

Metrics