Abstract

Fluorescence enhancement using photonic crystals can produce a significant improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio for single molecule and low molecule-concentration fluorescence imaging in biological and biochemical studies. In this Letter, a pixelated one-dimensional photonic band gap structure was designed to enhance both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations through a spatially multiplexed photonic crystal resonance. The average enhancement of 15.6 and 17.9 fold were experimentally verified for the transverse and longitudinal fields on the same substrate. This device may be used as an optical platform for molecular orientation determination.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. N. Ganesh, I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, E. Chow, V. Malyarchuk, and B. T. Cunningham, Opt. Express 16, 21626 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. I. V. Soboleva, E. Descrovi, C. Summonte, A. A. Fedyanin, and F. Giorgis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231122 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Liu, S. Wang, Y.-S. Park, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, Opt. Express 18, 25029 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, Nat. Photon. 3, 654 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. C. Fu, G. Ossato, M. Long, M. A. Digman, A. Gopinathan, L. P. Lee, E. Gratton, and M. Khine, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203101 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Ballarini, F. Frascella, F. Michelotti, G. Digregorio, P. Rivolo, V. Paeder, V. Musi, F. Giorgis, and E. Descrovi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 043302 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Liscidini, M. Galli, M. Shi, G. Dacarro, M. Patrini, D. Bajoni, and J. E. Sipe, Opt. Lett. 34, 2318 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Pokhriyal, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, C.-S. Huang, S. Schulz, and B. T. Cunningham, Opt. Express 18, 24793 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Ballarini, F. Frascella, N. D. Leo, S. Ricciardi, P. Rivolo, P. Mandracci, E. Enrico, F. Giorgis, F. Michelotti, and E. Descrovi, Opt. Express 20, 6703 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Gao, A. M. Sarangan, and Q. Zhan, Opt. Mater. Express 1, 1216 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, Science 282, 1679 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Gu, W. Sun, G. Wang, and N. Fang, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 5720 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. A. Deschenes and D. A. Vanden Bout, Science 292, 255 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Sönnichsen and A. P. Alivisatos, Nano Lett. 5, 301 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Z. Sikorski and L. M. Davis, Opt. Express 16, 3660 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. Sick, B. Hecht, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4482 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. A. Empedocles, R. Neuhauser, and M. G. Bawendi, Nature 399, 126 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2012

2011

J. Gao, A. M. Sarangan, and Q. Zhan, Opt. Mater. Express 1, 1216 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Ballarini, F. Frascella, F. Michelotti, G. Digregorio, P. Rivolo, V. Paeder, V. Musi, F. Giorgis, and E. Descrovi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 043302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gu, W. Sun, G. Wang, and N. Fang, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 5720 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

M. Liscidini, M. Galli, M. Shi, G. Dacarro, M. Patrini, D. Bajoni, and J. E. Sipe, Opt. Lett. 34, 2318 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, Nat. Photon. 3, 654 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Soboleva, E. Descrovi, C. Summonte, A. A. Fedyanin, and F. Giorgis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2005

C. Sönnichsen and A. P. Alivisatos, Nano Lett. 5, 301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001

L. A. Deschenes and D. A. Vanden Bout, Science 292, 255 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

B. Sick, B. Hecht, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

S. A. Empedocles, R. Neuhauser, and M. G. Bawendi, Nature 399, 126 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, Science 282, 1679 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Alivisatos, A. P.

C. Sönnichsen and A. P. Alivisatos, Nano Lett. 5, 301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Avlasevich, Y.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, Nat. Photon. 3, 654 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bajoni, D.

Ballarini, M.

M. Ballarini, F. Frascella, N. D. Leo, S. Ricciardi, P. Rivolo, P. Mandracci, E. Enrico, F. Giorgis, F. Michelotti, and E. Descrovi, Opt. Express 20, 6703 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Ballarini, F. Frascella, F. Michelotti, G. Digregorio, P. Rivolo, V. Paeder, V. Musi, F. Giorgis, and E. Descrovi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 043302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bawendi, M. G.

S. A. Empedocles, R. Neuhauser, and M. G. Bawendi, Nature 399, 126 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Block, I. D.

Chaudhery, V.

Chen, C.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, Science 282, 1679 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chow, E.

Cunningham, B. T.

Dacarro, G.

Davis, L. M.

Deschenes, L. A.

L. A. Deschenes and D. A. Vanden Bout, Science 292, 255 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Descrovi, E.

M. Ballarini, F. Frascella, N. D. Leo, S. Ricciardi, P. Rivolo, P. Mandracci, E. Enrico, F. Giorgis, F. Michelotti, and E. Descrovi, Opt. Express 20, 6703 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Ballarini, F. Frascella, F. Michelotti, G. Digregorio, P. Rivolo, V. Paeder, V. Musi, F. Giorgis, and E. Descrovi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 043302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Soboleva, E. Descrovi, C. Summonte, A. A. Fedyanin, and F. Giorgis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Digman, M. A.

C. C. Fu, G. Ossato, M. Long, M. A. Digman, A. Gopinathan, L. P. Lee, E. Gratton, and M. Khine, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Digregorio, G.

M. Ballarini, F. Frascella, F. Michelotti, G. Digregorio, P. Rivolo, V. Paeder, V. Musi, F. Giorgis, and E. Descrovi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 043302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Empedocles, S. A.

S. A. Empedocles, R. Neuhauser, and M. G. Bawendi, Nature 399, 126 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Enrico, E.

Fan, S.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, Nat. Photon. 3, 654 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, Science 282, 1679 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fang, N.

Y. Gu, W. Sun, G. Wang, and N. Fang, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 5720 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fedyanin, A. A.

I. V. Soboleva, E. Descrovi, C. Summonte, A. A. Fedyanin, and F. Giorgis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fink, Y.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, Science 282, 1679 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Frascella, F.

M. Ballarini, F. Frascella, N. D. Leo, S. Ricciardi, P. Rivolo, P. Mandracci, E. Enrico, F. Giorgis, F. Michelotti, and E. Descrovi, Opt. Express 20, 6703 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Ballarini, F. Frascella, F. Michelotti, G. Digregorio, P. Rivolo, V. Paeder, V. Musi, F. Giorgis, and E. Descrovi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 043302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fu, C. C.

C. C. Fu, G. Ossato, M. Long, M. A. Digman, A. Gopinathan, L. P. Lee, E. Gratton, and M. Khine, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Galli, M.

Ganesh, N.

Gao, J.

Giorgis, F.

M. Ballarini, F. Frascella, N. D. Leo, S. Ricciardi, P. Rivolo, P. Mandracci, E. Enrico, F. Giorgis, F. Michelotti, and E. Descrovi, Opt. Express 20, 6703 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Ballarini, F. Frascella, F. Michelotti, G. Digregorio, P. Rivolo, V. Paeder, V. Musi, F. Giorgis, and E. Descrovi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 043302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Soboleva, E. Descrovi, C. Summonte, A. A. Fedyanin, and F. Giorgis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gopinathan, A.

C. C. Fu, G. Ossato, M. Long, M. A. Digman, A. Gopinathan, L. P. Lee, E. Gratton, and M. Khine, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gratton, E.

C. C. Fu, G. Ossato, M. Long, M. A. Digman, A. Gopinathan, L. P. Lee, E. Gratton, and M. Khine, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gu, Y.

Y. Gu, W. Sun, G. Wang, and N. Fang, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 5720 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

B. Sick, B. Hecht, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.-S.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, Science 282, 1679 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Khine, M.

C. C. Fu, G. Ossato, M. Long, M. A. Digman, A. Gopinathan, L. P. Lee, E. Gratton, and M. Khine, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kinkhabwala, A.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, Nat. Photon. 3, 654 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, L. P.

C. C. Fu, G. Ossato, M. Long, M. A. Digman, A. Gopinathan, L. P. Lee, E. Gratton, and M. Khine, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Leo, N. D.

Liscidini, M.

Liu, Y.

Long, M.

C. C. Fu, G. Ossato, M. Long, M. A. Digman, A. Gopinathan, L. P. Lee, E. Gratton, and M. Khine, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lu, M.

Malyarchuk, V.

Mandracci, P.

Mathias, P. C.

Michel, J.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, Science 282, 1679 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Michelotti, F.

M. Ballarini, F. Frascella, N. D. Leo, S. Ricciardi, P. Rivolo, P. Mandracci, E. Enrico, F. Giorgis, F. Michelotti, and E. Descrovi, Opt. Express 20, 6703 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Ballarini, F. Frascella, F. Michelotti, G. Digregorio, P. Rivolo, V. Paeder, V. Musi, F. Giorgis, and E. Descrovi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 043302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Moerner, W. E.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, Nat. Photon. 3, 654 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Müllen, K.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, Nat. Photon. 3, 654 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Musi, V.

M. Ballarini, F. Frascella, F. Michelotti, G. Digregorio, P. Rivolo, V. Paeder, V. Musi, F. Giorgis, and E. Descrovi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 043302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Neuhauser, R.

S. A. Empedocles, R. Neuhauser, and M. G. Bawendi, Nature 399, 126 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

B. Sick, B. Hecht, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ossato, G.

C. C. Fu, G. Ossato, M. Long, M. A. Digman, A. Gopinathan, L. P. Lee, E. Gratton, and M. Khine, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Paeder, V.

M. Ballarini, F. Frascella, F. Michelotti, G. Digregorio, P. Rivolo, V. Paeder, V. Musi, F. Giorgis, and E. Descrovi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 043302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.-S.

Patrini, M.

Pokhriyal, A.

Ricciardi, S.

Rivolo, P.

M. Ballarini, F. Frascella, N. D. Leo, S. Ricciardi, P. Rivolo, P. Mandracci, E. Enrico, F. Giorgis, F. Michelotti, and E. Descrovi, Opt. Express 20, 6703 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Ballarini, F. Frascella, F. Michelotti, G. Digregorio, P. Rivolo, V. Paeder, V. Musi, F. Giorgis, and E. Descrovi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 043302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sarangan, A. M.

Schulz, S.

Shi, M.

Sick, B.

B. Sick, B. Hecht, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sikorski, Z.

Sipe, J. E.

Soboleva, I. V.

I. V. Soboleva, E. Descrovi, C. Summonte, A. A. Fedyanin, and F. Giorgis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sönnichsen, C.

C. Sönnichsen and A. P. Alivisatos, Nano Lett. 5, 301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Summonte, C.

I. V. Soboleva, E. Descrovi, C. Summonte, A. A. Fedyanin, and F. Giorgis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sun, W.

Y. Gu, W. Sun, G. Wang, and N. Fang, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 5720 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, E. L.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, Science 282, 1679 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vanden Bout, D. A.

L. A. Deschenes and D. A. Vanden Bout, Science 292, 255 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.

Y. Gu, W. Sun, G. Wang, and N. Fang, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 5720 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

Winn, J. N.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, Science 282, 1679 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yin, X.

Yu, Z.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, Nat. Photon. 3, 654 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhan, Q.

Zhang, W.

Zhang, X.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. C. Fu, G. Ossato, M. Long, M. A. Digman, A. Gopinathan, L. P. Lee, E. Gratton, and M. Khine, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Ballarini, F. Frascella, F. Michelotti, G. Digregorio, P. Rivolo, V. Paeder, V. Musi, F. Giorgis, and E. Descrovi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 043302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Soboleva, E. Descrovi, C. Summonte, A. A. Fedyanin, and F. Giorgis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

Y. Gu, W. Sun, G. Wang, and N. Fang, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 5720 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

C. Sönnichsen and A. P. Alivisatos, Nano Lett. 5, 301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, Nat. Photon. 3, 654 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature

S. A. Empedocles, R. Neuhauser, and M. G. Bawendi, Nature 399, 126 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater. Express

Phys. Rev. Lett.

B. Sick, B. Hecht, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Science

L. A. Deschenes and D. A. Vanden Bout, Science 292, 255 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, Science 282, 1679 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (4193 KB)     

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Designed 1DPBG structures with alternating high and low index materials (GaP 55 nm and SiO2 122 nm) on fused silica substrates: (a) 6 layers; (b) 7 layers; and (c) 6 layers with a patterned 7th layer (GaP 27×27μm2 with thickness of 47 nm).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Field enhancement as a function of incident angle: (a) TE wave and (b) TM wave (different thicknesses for the last layer).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Top view of 1DPBG structure with the patterned last layer GaP (47 nm) under 20× microscope objective.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Field enhancement setup for both TE and TM excitation.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(Media 1) Field enhancement fluorescence images captured by CCD camera with 25× objective lens: (a) strong TE resonance at 44.99 deg incident angle; (b) TE enhancement at 44.27 deg incident angle; (c) Strong TM resonance at 43.83 deg incident angle; and (d) TM enhancement at 44.27 deg incident angle. The insets at each bottom left corners are enlarged images of the same area at the center.

Metrics