Abstract

We report on crystal growth, spectroscopy, thermal conductivity and I11/24I13/24-laser performance of Er:Lu2O3. Pumping with an optically pumped semiconductor laser at 971 nm, 1.4 W of cw output power with a slope efficiency of 36% at 2.85 µm was obtained at room temperature. This exceeds the Stokes efficiency due to an upconversion process recycling population of the lower laser level back into the upper laser level, yielding the highest efficiency of any Er-sesquioxide laser around 3 µm. Under diode pumping, 5.9 W of output power with 27% of slope efficiency was achieved with an M2 of 1.2 to 1.4.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2011

2010

2008

R. Peters, C. Kränkel, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, J. Cryst. Growth 310, 1934 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Morikawa, C. Leong, T. Hashimoto, T. Ogawa, Y. Urata, S. Wada, M. Higuchi, and J. Takahashi, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 063522 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

1999

L. Fornasiero, E. Mix, V. Peters, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, Cryst. Res. Technol. 34, 255 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

1995

J. Koetke and G. Huber, Appl. Phys. B 61, 151 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1986

J. L. Boulnois, Lasers Med. Sci. 1, 47 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983

V. I. Zhekov, V. A. Lobachev, T. M. Murina, and A. M. Prokhorov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1235 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1960

P. G. Klemens, Phys. Rev. 119, 507 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Baer, C. R. E.

R. Peters, C. Kränkel, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, K. Beil, K. Petermann, G. Huber, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. J. Saraceno, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 102, 509 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, Opt. Lett. 35, 2302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Beil, K.

R. Peters, C. Kränkel, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, K. Beil, K. Petermann, G. Huber, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. J. Saraceno, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 102, 509 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Boulnois, J. L.

J. L. Boulnois, Lasers Med. Sci. 1, 47 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chai, B. H. T.

Diening, A.

T. Jensen, A. Diening, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, Opt. Lett. 21, 585 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. Peters, L. Fornasiero, E. Mix, A. Diening, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, in Technical Digest of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (EQEC, 1998), p. 379.

Dubinskii, M.

Fornasiero, L.

L. Fornasiero, E. Mix, V. Peters, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, Cryst. Res. Technol. 34, 255 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Peters, L. Fornasiero, E. Mix, A. Diening, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, in Technical Digest of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (EQEC, 1998), p. 379.

Fredrich-Thornton, S. T.

R. Peters, C. Kränkel, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, K. Beil, K. Petermann, G. Huber, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. J. Saraceno, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 102, 509 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Kühn, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, C. Kränkel, R. Peter, and K. Petermann, Opt. Lett. 32, 1908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fuhrberg, P.

Golling, M.

Hashimoto, T.

J. Morikawa, C. Leong, T. Hashimoto, T. Ogawa, Y. Urata, S. Wada, M. Higuchi, and J. Takahashi, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 063522 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Heckl, O. H.

R. Peters, C. Kränkel, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, K. Beil, K. Petermann, G. Huber, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. J. Saraceno, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 102, 509 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, Opt. Lett. 35, 2302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Higuchi, M.

J. Morikawa, C. Leong, T. Hashimoto, T. Ogawa, Y. Urata, S. Wada, M. Higuchi, and J. Takahashi, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 063522 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

P. Koopmann, S. Lamrini, K. Scholle, P. Fuhrberg, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, Opt. Lett. 36, 948 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Koopmann, S. Lamrini, K. Scholle, M. Schäfer, P. Fuhrberg, and G. Huber, Opt. Mater. Express 1, 1447 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Peters, C. Kränkel, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, K. Beil, K. Petermann, G. Huber, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. J. Saraceno, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 102, 509 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, Opt. Lett. 35, 2302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Peters, C. Kränkel, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, J. Cryst. Growth 310, 1934 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Fornasiero, E. Mix, V. Peters, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, Cryst. Res. Technol. 34, 255 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Jensen, A. Diening, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, Opt. Lett. 21, 585 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Koetke and G. Huber, Appl. Phys. B 61, 151 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. Peters, L. Fornasiero, E. Mix, A. Diening, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, in Technical Digest of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (EQEC, 1998), p. 379.

Jensen, T.

Kanskar, M.

Kedlaya, D.

Keller, U.

R. Peters, C. Kränkel, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, K. Beil, K. Petermann, G. Huber, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. J. Saraceno, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 102, 509 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, Opt. Lett. 35, 2302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Klemens, P. G.

P. G. Klemens, Phys. Rev. 119, 507 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Koetke, J.

J. Koetke and G. Huber, Appl. Phys. B 61, 151 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Koopmann, P.

Kränkel, C.

R. Peters, C. Kränkel, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, K. Beil, K. Petermann, G. Huber, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. J. Saraceno, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 102, 509 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, Opt. Lett. 35, 2302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Peters, C. Kränkel, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, J. Cryst. Growth 310, 1934 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Kühn, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, C. Kränkel, R. Peter, and K. Petermann, Opt. Lett. 32, 1908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kühn, H.

Lamrini, S.

Leong, C.

J. Morikawa, C. Leong, T. Hashimoto, T. Ogawa, Y. Urata, S. Wada, M. Higuchi, and J. Takahashi, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 063522 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lobachev, V. A.

V. I. Zhekov, V. A. Lobachev, T. M. Murina, and A. M. Prokhorov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1235 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Mix, E.

L. Fornasiero, E. Mix, V. Peters, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, Cryst. Res. Technol. 34, 255 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Peters, L. Fornasiero, E. Mix, A. Diening, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, in Technical Digest of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (EQEC, 1998), p. 379.

Morikawa, J.

J. Morikawa, C. Leong, T. Hashimoto, T. Ogawa, Y. Urata, S. Wada, M. Higuchi, and J. Takahashi, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 063522 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mungan, C. E.

Murina, T. M.

V. I. Zhekov, V. A. Lobachev, T. M. Murina, and A. M. Prokhorov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1235 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, T.

J. Morikawa, C. Leong, T. Hashimoto, T. Ogawa, Y. Urata, S. Wada, M. Higuchi, and J. Takahashi, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 063522 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Peter, R.

Petermann, K.

R. Peters, C. Kränkel, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, K. Beil, K. Petermann, G. Huber, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. J. Saraceno, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 102, 509 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Koopmann, S. Lamrini, K. Scholle, P. Fuhrberg, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, Opt. Lett. 36, 948 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, Opt. Lett. 35, 2302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Peters, C. Kränkel, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, J. Cryst. Growth 310, 1934 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Kühn, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, C. Kränkel, R. Peter, and K. Petermann, Opt. Lett. 32, 1908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Fornasiero, E. Mix, V. Peters, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, Cryst. Res. Technol. 34, 255 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Peters, L. Fornasiero, E. Mix, A. Diening, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, in Technical Digest of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (EQEC, 1998), p. 379.

Peters, R.

R. Peters, C. Kränkel, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, K. Beil, K. Petermann, G. Huber, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. J. Saraceno, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 102, 509 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, Opt. Lett. 35, 2302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Peters, C. Kränkel, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, J. Cryst. Growth 310, 1934 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Peters, V.

L. Fornasiero, E. Mix, V. Peters, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, Cryst. Res. Technol. 34, 255 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Peters, L. Fornasiero, E. Mix, A. Diening, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, in Technical Digest of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (EQEC, 1998), p. 379.

Prokhorov, A. M.

V. I. Zhekov, V. A. Lobachev, T. M. Murina, and A. M. Prokhorov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1235 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sanamyan, T.

Saraceno, C. J.

R. Peters, C. Kränkel, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, K. Beil, K. Petermann, G. Huber, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. J. Saraceno, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 102, 509 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, Opt. Lett. 35, 2302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schäfer, M.

Scholle, K.

Südmeyer, T.

R. Peters, C. Kränkel, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, K. Beil, K. Petermann, G. Huber, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. J. Saraceno, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 102, 509 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, Opt. Lett. 35, 2302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, J.

J. Morikawa, C. Leong, T. Hashimoto, T. Ogawa, Y. Urata, S. Wada, M. Higuchi, and J. Takahashi, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 063522 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Urata, Y.

J. Morikawa, C. Leong, T. Hashimoto, T. Ogawa, Y. Urata, S. Wada, M. Higuchi, and J. Takahashi, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 063522 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wada, S.

J. Morikawa, C. Leong, T. Hashimoto, T. Ogawa, Y. Urata, S. Wada, M. Higuchi, and J. Takahashi, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 063522 (2008).
[CrossRef]

White, J. O.

Xiao, Y.

Zhekov, V. I.

V. I. Zhekov, V. A. Lobachev, T. M. Murina, and A. M. Prokhorov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1235 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

R. Peters, C. Kränkel, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, K. Beil, K. Petermann, G. Huber, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. J. Saraceno, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 102, 509 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Koetke and G. Huber, Appl. Phys. B 61, 151 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cryst. Res. Technol.

L. Fornasiero, E. Mix, V. Peters, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, Cryst. Res. Technol. 34, 255 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

J. Morikawa, C. Leong, T. Hashimoto, T. Ogawa, Y. Urata, S. Wada, M. Higuchi, and J. Takahashi, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 063522 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

R. Peters, C. Kränkel, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, J. Cryst. Growth 310, 1934 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Lasers Med. Sci.

J. L. Boulnois, Lasers Med. Sci. 1, 47 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater. Express

Phys. Rev.

P. G. Klemens, Phys. Rev. 119, 507 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron.

V. I. Zhekov, V. A. Lobachev, T. M. Murina, and A. M. Prokhorov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1235 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Other

V. Peters, L. Fornasiero, E. Mix, A. Diening, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, in Technical Digest of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (EQEC, 1998), p. 379.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Thermal conductivity of Er:Lu2O3. Note that at the same doping concentration in atomic percent, the Er density in Lu2O3 (Lu-density=2.85×1022cm3), is roughly twice as high as in YAG (Y-density=1.39×1022cm3).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Fluorescence lifetime of the I11/24 and the I13/24 level in dependence of the doping concentration.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

ΔI/I-spectra (solid line) and GSA spectra (dotted line) of Er:Lu2O3.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

I11/24I13/24 emission spectrum of Er:Lu2O3.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Output power versus absorbed OPSL pump power. Inset: laser spectrum.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Output power versus absorbed LD pump power. Inset: laser spectrum.

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