Abstract

A laser line-scanning instrument was developed to optimize the near-field enhancement capability of a one-dimensional photonic crystal (PC) for excitation of surface-bound fluorophores. The excitation laser beam is shaped into an 8μm×1mm line that is focused along the direction of the PC grating, while remaining collimated perpendicular to the grating. Such a beam configuration offers high excitation power density while simultaneously providing high resonant coupling efficiency from the laser to the PC surface. Using a panel of 21 immunofluorescence assays on the PC surface in a microarray format, the approach achieves an enhancement factor as high as 90-fold between on-resonance and off-resonance illumination. The instrument provides a capability for sensitive and inexpensive analysis of cancer biomarkers in clinical applications.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 515 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Kaji, T. Yamada, R. Ueda, and A. Otomo, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 1651 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Li, P. Zhang, J. Li, J. Zhou, A. Sinitskii, V. Abramova, S. O. Klimonsky, and Y. D. Tretyakov, Appl. Phys. B 89, 251 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Pokhriyal, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, C.-S. Huang, S. Schulz, and B. T. Cunningham, Opt. Express 18, 24793 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. I. V. Soboleva, E. Descrovi, C. Summonte, A. A. Fedyanin, and F. Giorgis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231122 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Ganesh, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083104 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Brzezinski, J.-T. Lee, J. D. Slinker, G. G. Malliaras, P. V. Braun, and P. Wiltzius, Phys. Rev. B 77, 233106 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C.-S. Huang, S. George, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, B. T. Cunningham, Anal. Chem. 83, 1425 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, H. Y. Wu, F. Yang, N. Ganesh, D. O. Gonzalez, G. Bollero, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, Anal. Chem. 82, 6854 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. V. Chaudhery, C.-S. Huang, A. Pokhriyal, J. Polans, and B. T. Cunningham, Opt. Express 19, 23327 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, S. I. Jones, B. R. Dorvel, V. Chaudhery, L. O. Vodkin, R. Bashir, and B. T. Cunningham, Opt. Express 17, 13222 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. V. Chaudhery, M. Lu, A. Pokhriyal, S. Schulz, and B. Cunningham, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 1272 (2011).
  13. P. C. Mathias, H.-Y. Wu, and B. T. Cunningham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 021111 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2011

T. Kaji, T. Yamada, R. Ueda, and A. Otomo, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 1651 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C.-S. Huang, S. George, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, B. T. Cunningham, Anal. Chem. 83, 1425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Chaudhery, C.-S. Huang, A. Pokhriyal, J. Polans, and B. T. Cunningham, Opt. Express 19, 23327 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Chaudhery, M. Lu, A. Pokhriyal, S. Schulz, and B. Cunningham, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 1272 (2011).

2010

P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, H. Y. Wu, F. Yang, N. Ganesh, D. O. Gonzalez, G. Bollero, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, Anal. Chem. 82, 6854 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Pokhriyal, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, C.-S. Huang, S. Schulz, and B. T. Cunningham, Opt. Express 18, 24793 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

I. V. Soboleva, E. Descrovi, C. Summonte, A. A. Fedyanin, and F. Giorgis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Mathias, H.-Y. Wu, and B. T. Cunningham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 021111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, S. I. Jones, B. R. Dorvel, V. Chaudhery, L. O. Vodkin, R. Bashir, and B. T. Cunningham, Opt. Express 17, 13222 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

N. Ganesh, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Brzezinski, J.-T. Lee, J. D. Slinker, G. G. Malliaras, P. V. Braun, and P. Wiltzius, Phys. Rev. B 77, 233106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. Li, P. Zhang, J. Li, J. Zhou, A. Sinitskii, V. Abramova, S. O. Klimonsky, and Y. D. Tretyakov, Appl. Phys. B 89, 251 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Abramova, V.

M. Li, P. Zhang, J. Li, J. Zhou, A. Sinitskii, V. Abramova, S. O. Klimonsky, and Y. D. Tretyakov, Appl. Phys. B 89, 251 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bashir, R.

Block, I. D.

Bollero, G.

P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, H. Y. Wu, F. Yang, N. Ganesh, D. O. Gonzalez, G. Bollero, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, Anal. Chem. 82, 6854 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Braun, P. V.

A. Brzezinski, J.-T. Lee, J. D. Slinker, G. G. Malliaras, P. V. Braun, and P. Wiltzius, Phys. Rev. B 77, 233106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brzezinski, A.

A. Brzezinski, J.-T. Lee, J. D. Slinker, G. G. Malliaras, P. V. Braun, and P. Wiltzius, Phys. Rev. B 77, 233106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chaudhery, V.

Chow, E.

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, B.

V. Chaudhery, M. Lu, A. Pokhriyal, S. Schulz, and B. Cunningham, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 1272 (2011).

Cunningham, B. T.

V. Chaudhery, C.-S. Huang, A. Pokhriyal, J. Polans, and B. T. Cunningham, Opt. Express 19, 23327 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C.-S. Huang, S. George, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, B. T. Cunningham, Anal. Chem. 83, 1425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, H. Y. Wu, F. Yang, N. Ganesh, D. O. Gonzalez, G. Bollero, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, Anal. Chem. 82, 6854 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Pokhriyal, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, C.-S. Huang, S. Schulz, and B. T. Cunningham, Opt. Express 18, 24793 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, S. I. Jones, B. R. Dorvel, V. Chaudhery, L. O. Vodkin, R. Bashir, and B. T. Cunningham, Opt. Express 17, 13222 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Mathias, H.-Y. Wu, and B. T. Cunningham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 021111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Descrovi, E.

I. V. Soboleva, E. Descrovi, C. Summonte, A. A. Fedyanin, and F. Giorgis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dorvel, B. R.

Fedyanin, A. A.

I. V. Soboleva, E. Descrovi, C. Summonte, A. A. Fedyanin, and F. Giorgis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ganesh, N.

P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, H. Y. Wu, F. Yang, N. Ganesh, D. O. Gonzalez, G. Bollero, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, Anal. Chem. 82, 6854 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, S. I. Jones, B. R. Dorvel, V. Chaudhery, L. O. Vodkin, R. Bashir, and B. T. Cunningham, Opt. Express 17, 13222 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

George, S.

C.-S. Huang, S. George, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, B. T. Cunningham, Anal. Chem. 83, 1425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Giorgis, F.

I. V. Soboleva, E. Descrovi, C. Summonte, A. A. Fedyanin, and F. Giorgis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez, D. O.

P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, H. Y. Wu, F. Yang, N. Ganesh, D. O. Gonzalez, G. Bollero, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, Anal. Chem. 82, 6854 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.-S.

Jones, S. I.

P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, H. Y. Wu, F. Yang, N. Ganesh, D. O. Gonzalez, G. Bollero, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, Anal. Chem. 82, 6854 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, S. I. Jones, B. R. Dorvel, V. Chaudhery, L. O. Vodkin, R. Bashir, and B. T. Cunningham, Opt. Express 17, 13222 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kaji, T.

T. Kaji, T. Yamada, R. Ueda, and A. Otomo, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 1651 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Klimonsky, S. O.

M. Li, P. Zhang, J. Li, J. Zhou, A. Sinitskii, V. Abramova, S. O. Klimonsky, and Y. D. Tretyakov, Appl. Phys. B 89, 251 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-T.

A. Brzezinski, J.-T. Lee, J. D. Slinker, G. G. Malliaras, P. V. Braun, and P. Wiltzius, Phys. Rev. B 77, 233106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

M. Li, P. Zhang, J. Li, J. Zhou, A. Sinitskii, V. Abramova, S. O. Klimonsky, and Y. D. Tretyakov, Appl. Phys. B 89, 251 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

M. Li, P. Zhang, J. Li, J. Zhou, A. Sinitskii, V. Abramova, S. O. Klimonsky, and Y. D. Tretyakov, Appl. Phys. B 89, 251 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, M.

C.-S. Huang, S. George, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, B. T. Cunningham, Anal. Chem. 83, 1425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Chaudhery, M. Lu, A. Pokhriyal, S. Schulz, and B. Cunningham, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 1272 (2011).

A. Pokhriyal, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, C.-S. Huang, S. Schulz, and B. T. Cunningham, Opt. Express 18, 24793 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Malliaras, G. G.

A. Brzezinski, J.-T. Lee, J. D. Slinker, G. G. Malliaras, P. V. Braun, and P. Wiltzius, Phys. Rev. B 77, 233106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Malyarchuk, V.

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mathias, P. C.

P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, H. Y. Wu, F. Yang, N. Ganesh, D. O. Gonzalez, G. Bollero, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, Anal. Chem. 82, 6854 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, S. I. Jones, B. R. Dorvel, V. Chaudhery, L. O. Vodkin, R. Bashir, and B. T. Cunningham, Opt. Express 17, 13222 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Mathias, H.-Y. Wu, and B. T. Cunningham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 021111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Otomo, A.

T. Kaji, T. Yamada, R. Ueda, and A. Otomo, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 1651 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pokhriyal, A.

Polans, J.

Schulz, S.

V. Chaudhery, M. Lu, A. Pokhriyal, S. Schulz, and B. Cunningham, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 1272 (2011).

A. Pokhriyal, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, C.-S. Huang, S. Schulz, and B. T. Cunningham, Opt. Express 18, 24793 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sinitskii, A.

M. Li, P. Zhang, J. Li, J. Zhou, A. Sinitskii, V. Abramova, S. O. Klimonsky, and Y. D. Tretyakov, Appl. Phys. B 89, 251 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Slinker, J. D.

A. Brzezinski, J.-T. Lee, J. D. Slinker, G. G. Malliaras, P. V. Braun, and P. Wiltzius, Phys. Rev. B 77, 233106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A. D.

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Soares, J.

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Soboleva, I. V.

I. V. Soboleva, E. Descrovi, C. Summonte, A. A. Fedyanin, and F. Giorgis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Summonte, C.

I. V. Soboleva, E. Descrovi, C. Summonte, A. A. Fedyanin, and F. Giorgis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tan, R.

C.-S. Huang, S. George, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, B. T. Cunningham, Anal. Chem. 83, 1425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tretyakov, Y. D.

M. Li, P. Zhang, J. Li, J. Zhou, A. Sinitskii, V. Abramova, S. O. Klimonsky, and Y. D. Tretyakov, Appl. Phys. B 89, 251 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, R.

T. Kaji, T. Yamada, R. Ueda, and A. Otomo, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 1651 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vodkin, L. O.

P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, H. Y. Wu, F. Yang, N. Ganesh, D. O. Gonzalez, G. Bollero, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, Anal. Chem. 82, 6854 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, S. I. Jones, B. R. Dorvel, V. Chaudhery, L. O. Vodkin, R. Bashir, and B. T. Cunningham, Opt. Express 17, 13222 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wiltzius, P.

A. Brzezinski, J.-T. Lee, J. D. Slinker, G. G. Malliaras, P. V. Braun, and P. Wiltzius, Phys. Rev. B 77, 233106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, H. Y.

P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, H. Y. Wu, F. Yang, N. Ganesh, D. O. Gonzalez, G. Bollero, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, Anal. Chem. 82, 6854 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, H.-Y.

P. C. Mathias, H.-Y. Wu, and B. T. Cunningham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 021111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, T.

T. Kaji, T. Yamada, R. Ueda, and A. Otomo, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 1651 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, F.

P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, H. Y. Wu, F. Yang, N. Ganesh, D. O. Gonzalez, G. Bollero, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, Anal. Chem. 82, 6854 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zangar, R. C.

C.-S. Huang, S. George, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, B. T. Cunningham, Anal. Chem. 83, 1425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, P.

M. Li, P. Zhang, J. Li, J. Zhou, A. Sinitskii, V. Abramova, S. O. Klimonsky, and Y. D. Tretyakov, Appl. Phys. B 89, 251 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

N. Ganesh, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

M. Li, P. Zhang, J. Li, J. Zhou, A. Sinitskii, V. Abramova, S. O. Klimonsky, and Y. D. Tretyakov, Appl. Phys. B 89, 251 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem.

C.-S. Huang, S. George, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, B. T. Cunningham, Anal. Chem. 83, 1425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, H. Y. Wu, F. Yang, N. Ganesh, D. O. Gonzalez, G. Bollero, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, Anal. Chem. 82, 6854 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

M. Li, P. Zhang, J. Li, J. Zhou, A. Sinitskii, V. Abramova, S. O. Klimonsky, and Y. D. Tretyakov, Appl. Phys. B 89, 251 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

I. V. Soboleva, E. Descrovi, C. Summonte, A. A. Fedyanin, and F. Giorgis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Mathias, H.-Y. Wu, and B. T. Cunningham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 021111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J.

V. Chaudhery, M. Lu, A. Pokhriyal, S. Schulz, and B. Cunningham, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 1272 (2011).

J. Appl. Phys.

N. Ganesh, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Lett.

T. Kaji, T. Yamada, R. Ueda, and A. Otomo, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 1651 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Nanotechnol.

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. B

A. Brzezinski, J.-T. Lee, J. D. Slinker, G. G. Malliaras, P. V. Braun, and P. Wiltzius, Phys. Rev. B 77, 233106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic of the PC structure (not to scale). The grating is oriented along the x-axis; (b) Photonic band diagram of the PC surface for ϕ=0° and ϕ varied from 0° to 12°; (c) Photonic band diagram of the PC sensor for ϕ=0° and ϕ varied from 0° to 12°.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Photonic crystal enhanced line-scanner schematic; (b) Image of the line on a two dimensional CCD showing a narrow tightly focused line; (c) The intensity profile along the line and across the line. The line has a Gaussian profile in both directions; (d) A curve showing a comparison of the coupling efficiency to the resonant mode for a line focused beam and the corresponding normalized fluorescence signal.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The images of the 21 assays are shown for both (a) on- and (b) off-resonance illumination; (c) The signal intensity on- and off-resonance for each assay measured using the developed line-scanner. The on-resonance and off-resonance signal thresholds are indicated.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Antigens and Concentrations

Metrics