Abstract

A system for gas sensing based on the quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy technique has been developed. It makes use of a quantum well distributed feedback (DFB) laser diode emitting at 3.38 μm. This laser emits near room temperature in the continuous wave regime. A spectrophone, consisting of a quartz tuning fork and two steel microresonators were used. Second derivative wavelength modulation detection is used to perform low concentration measurements. The sensitivity and the linearity of the Quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) sensor were studied. A normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient of 4.06×109cm1·W/Hz1/2 was achieved.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, Opt. Lett. 27, 1902 (2002).
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    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Jahjah, A. Vicet, and Y. Rouillard, Appl. Phys. B 106, 483 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Jahjah, S. Moumdji, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, S. Bonnefont, Y. Rouillard, and A. Vicet, Electron. Lett. 48, 277 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Naehle, S. Belahsene, M. von Edlinger, M. Fischer, G. Boissier, P. Grech, G. Narcy, A. Vicet, Y. Rouillard, J. Koeth, and L. Worschech, Electron. Lett. 47, 46 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. The HITRAN database can be found at: http://www.hitran.com
  7. L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 100, 627 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

M. Jahjah, A. Vicet, and Y. Rouillard, Appl. Phys. B 106, 483 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Jahjah, S. Moumdji, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, S. Bonnefont, Y. Rouillard, and A. Vicet, Electron. Lett. 48, 277 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

L. Naehle, S. Belahsene, M. von Edlinger, M. Fischer, G. Boissier, P. Grech, G. Narcy, A. Vicet, Y. Rouillard, J. Koeth, and L. Worschech, Electron. Lett. 47, 46 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 100, 627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, F. K. Tittel, S. McWhorter, and B. Ashcraft, Appl. Phys. B 92, 103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

Ashcraft, B.

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, F. K. Tittel, S. McWhorter, and B. Ashcraft, Appl. Phys. B 92, 103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bakhirkin, Y. A.

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, F. K. Tittel, S. McWhorter, and B. Ashcraft, Appl. Phys. B 92, 103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, Opt. Lett. 27, 1902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Belahsene, S.

L. Naehle, S. Belahsene, M. von Edlinger, M. Fischer, G. Boissier, P. Grech, G. Narcy, A. Vicet, Y. Rouillard, J. Koeth, and L. Worschech, Electron. Lett. 47, 46 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Boissier, G.

L. Naehle, S. Belahsene, M. von Edlinger, M. Fischer, G. Boissier, P. Grech, G. Narcy, A. Vicet, Y. Rouillard, J. Koeth, and L. Worschech, Electron. Lett. 47, 46 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bonnefont, S.

M. Jahjah, S. Moumdji, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, S. Bonnefont, Y. Rouillard, and A. Vicet, Electron. Lett. 48, 277 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Curl, R. F.

Dong, L.

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 100, 627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, M.

L. Naehle, S. Belahsene, M. von Edlinger, M. Fischer, G. Boissier, P. Grech, G. Narcy, A. Vicet, Y. Rouillard, J. Koeth, and L. Worschech, Electron. Lett. 47, 46 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier-Lafaye, O.

M. Jahjah, S. Moumdji, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, S. Bonnefont, Y. Rouillard, and A. Vicet, Electron. Lett. 48, 277 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Grech, P.

L. Naehle, S. Belahsene, M. von Edlinger, M. Fischer, G. Boissier, P. Grech, G. Narcy, A. Vicet, Y. Rouillard, J. Koeth, and L. Worschech, Electron. Lett. 47, 46 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jahjah, M.

M. Jahjah, S. Moumdji, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, S. Bonnefont, Y. Rouillard, and A. Vicet, Electron. Lett. 48, 277 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Jahjah, A. Vicet, and Y. Rouillard, Appl. Phys. B 106, 483 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Koeth, J.

L. Naehle, S. Belahsene, M. von Edlinger, M. Fischer, G. Boissier, P. Grech, G. Narcy, A. Vicet, Y. Rouillard, J. Koeth, and L. Worschech, Electron. Lett. 47, 46 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kosterev, A. A.

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 100, 627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, F. K. Tittel, S. McWhorter, and B. Ashcraft, Appl. Phys. B 92, 103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, Opt. Lett. 27, 1902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McWhorter, S.

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, F. K. Tittel, S. McWhorter, and B. Ashcraft, Appl. Phys. B 92, 103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moumdji, S.

M. Jahjah, S. Moumdji, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, S. Bonnefont, Y. Rouillard, and A. Vicet, Electron. Lett. 48, 277 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Naehle, L.

L. Naehle, S. Belahsene, M. von Edlinger, M. Fischer, G. Boissier, P. Grech, G. Narcy, A. Vicet, Y. Rouillard, J. Koeth, and L. Worschech, Electron. Lett. 47, 46 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Narcy, G.

L. Naehle, S. Belahsene, M. von Edlinger, M. Fischer, G. Boissier, P. Grech, G. Narcy, A. Vicet, Y. Rouillard, J. Koeth, and L. Worschech, Electron. Lett. 47, 46 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rouillard, Y.

M. Jahjah, S. Moumdji, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, S. Bonnefont, Y. Rouillard, and A. Vicet, Electron. Lett. 48, 277 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Jahjah, A. Vicet, and Y. Rouillard, Appl. Phys. B 106, 483 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Naehle, S. Belahsene, M. von Edlinger, M. Fischer, G. Boissier, P. Grech, G. Narcy, A. Vicet, Y. Rouillard, J. Koeth, and L. Worschech, Electron. Lett. 47, 46 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thomazy, D.

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 100, 627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 100, 627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, F. K. Tittel, S. McWhorter, and B. Ashcraft, Appl. Phys. B 92, 103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, Opt. Lett. 27, 1902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vicet, A.

M. Jahjah, A. Vicet, and Y. Rouillard, Appl. Phys. B 106, 483 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Jahjah, S. Moumdji, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, S. Bonnefont, Y. Rouillard, and A. Vicet, Electron. Lett. 48, 277 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Naehle, S. Belahsene, M. von Edlinger, M. Fischer, G. Boissier, P. Grech, G. Narcy, A. Vicet, Y. Rouillard, J. Koeth, and L. Worschech, Electron. Lett. 47, 46 (2011).
[CrossRef]

von Edlinger, M.

L. Naehle, S. Belahsene, M. von Edlinger, M. Fischer, G. Boissier, P. Grech, G. Narcy, A. Vicet, Y. Rouillard, J. Koeth, and L. Worschech, Electron. Lett. 47, 46 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Worschech, L.

L. Naehle, S. Belahsene, M. von Edlinger, M. Fischer, G. Boissier, P. Grech, G. Narcy, A. Vicet, Y. Rouillard, J. Koeth, and L. Worschech, Electron. Lett. 47, 46 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (3)

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, F. K. Tittel, S. McWhorter, and B. Ashcraft, Appl. Phys. B 92, 103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Jahjah, A. Vicet, and Y. Rouillard, Appl. Phys. B 106, 483 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 100, 627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

M. Jahjah, S. Moumdji, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, S. Bonnefont, Y. Rouillard, and A. Vicet, Electron. Lett. 48, 277 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Naehle, S. Belahsene, M. von Edlinger, M. Fischer, G. Boissier, P. Grech, G. Narcy, A. Vicet, Y. Rouillard, J. Koeth, and L. Worschech, Electron. Lett. 47, 46 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (1)

The HITRAN database can be found at: http://www.hitran.com

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Emission spectrum of the DFB laser. The FTIR-setup-limited spectrum shows a signal to noise ratio around 30 dB. According to [5] the sidemode suppression ratio of the DFB laser is likely to be higher than 30 dB.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of the QEPAS sensor. QTF, quartz tuning fork; µR, microresonators; L=CaF2, lens; CG, current generator; FG, function generator.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Top: 2f signal, 300 ppbv of CH4, HITRAN database. Bottom: 2f experimental signal, 300 ppbv of CH4 in dry nitrogen.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

QEPAS signal as a function of methane concentration, using a 3.38 μm DFB laser. The best linear fit is plotted for concentrations above 500 ppbv.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Physical Properties of the Laser Diode and Quartz Tuning Fork Used to Setup the QEPAS Bench

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