Abstract

We present an optofluidic nonlinear waveguide array that is fabricated by selectively filling several strands of a photonic crystal fiber with the liquid CCl4, which exhibits a large focusing ultrafast Kerr nonlinearity. We demonstrate a power dependent formation of a spatial soliton in this novel optofluidic device. The large thermo-optical effect of liquids enables us to control the characteristics of the spatial soliton formation in these nonlinear structures. This opens the road toward flexible designs and the realization of a new class of optofluidic devices with complex nonlinear landscapes and novel effects.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. N. Christodoulides and R. I. Joseph, Opt. Lett. 13, 794 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Lederer, G. I. Stegeman, D. N. Christodoulides, G. Assanto, M. Segev, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rep. 463, 1 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. V. Kartashov, V. A. Vysloukh, and L. Torner, Prog. Opt. 52, 63 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, A. R. Boyd, and J. S. Aitchison, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3383 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. W. Fleischer, T. Carmon, M. Segev, N. K. Efremidis, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 23902 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Vieweg, T. Gissibl, S. Pricking, B. T. Kuhlmey, D. C. Wu, B. J. Eggleton, and H. Giessen, Opt. Express 18, 25232 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. H. H. Marvin, Phys. Rev. 34, 161 (1912).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. F. H. Bennet and J. Farnell, Opt. Commun. 283, 4069 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Minardi, F. Eilenberger, Y. V. Kartashov, A. Szameit, U. Röpke, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, H. Bartelt, S. Nolte, L. Torner, F. Lederer, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263901 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Pricking, M. Vieweg, and H. Giessen, Opt. Express 19, 21673 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

T. Gissibl, M. Vieweg, M. M. Vogel, M. Aboud Ahmed, T. Graf, and H. Giessen, Appl. Phys. B 106, 521 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Vieweg, S. Pricking, T. Gissibl, Y. V. Kartashov, L. Torner, and H. Giessen, Opt. Lett. 37, 1058 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

M. Vieweg, T. Gissibl, S. Pricking, B. T. Kuhlmey, D. C. Wu, B. J. Eggleton, and H. Giessen, Opt. Express 18, 25232 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. H. Bennet and J. Farnell, Opt. Commun. 283, 4069 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Minardi, F. Eilenberger, Y. V. Kartashov, A. Szameit, U. Röpke, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, H. Bartelt, S. Nolte, L. Torner, F. Lederer, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

2008 (1)

F. Lederer, G. I. Stegeman, D. N. Christodoulides, G. Assanto, M. Segev, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rep. 463, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2003 (1)

J. W. Fleischer, T. Carmon, M. Segev, N. K. Efremidis, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 23902 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, A. R. Boyd, and J. S. Aitchison, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3383 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1912 (1)

H. H. Marvin, Phys. Rev. 34, 161 (1912).
[CrossRef]

Aboud Ahmed, M.

T. Gissibl, M. Vieweg, M. M. Vogel, M. Aboud Ahmed, T. Graf, and H. Giessen, Appl. Phys. B 106, 521 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, A. R. Boyd, and J. S. Aitchison, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3383 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Assanto, G.

F. Lederer, G. I. Stegeman, D. N. Christodoulides, G. Assanto, M. Segev, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rep. 463, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bang, O.

Bartelt, H.

S. Minardi, F. Eilenberger, Y. V. Kartashov, A. Szameit, U. Röpke, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, H. Bartelt, S. Nolte, L. Torner, F. Lederer, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bennet, F. H.

Bjarklev, A.

Boyd, A. R.

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, A. R. Boyd, and J. S. Aitchison, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3383 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carmon, T.

J. W. Fleischer, T. Carmon, M. Segev, N. K. Efremidis, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 23902 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Christodoulides, D. N.

F. Lederer, G. I. Stegeman, D. N. Christodoulides, G. Assanto, M. Segev, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rep. 463, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Fleischer, T. Carmon, M. Segev, N. K. Efremidis, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 23902 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Christodoulides and R. I. Joseph, Opt. Lett. 13, 794 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Efremidis, N. K.

J. W. Fleischer, T. Carmon, M. Segev, N. K. Efremidis, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 23902 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

Eilenberger, F.

S. Minardi, F. Eilenberger, Y. V. Kartashov, A. Szameit, U. Röpke, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, H. Bartelt, S. Nolte, L. Torner, F. Lederer, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Eisenberg, H. S.

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, A. R. Boyd, and J. S. Aitchison, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3383 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Farnell, J.

F. H. Bennet and J. Farnell, Opt. Commun. 283, 4069 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fleischer, J. W.

J. W. Fleischer, T. Carmon, M. Segev, N. K. Efremidis, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 23902 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

Gissibl, T.

Graf, T.

T. Gissibl, M. Vieweg, M. M. Vogel, M. Aboud Ahmed, T. Graf, and H. Giessen, Appl. Phys. B 106, 521 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hoos, F.

Joseph, R. I.

Kartashov, Y. V.

M. Vieweg, S. Pricking, T. Gissibl, Y. V. Kartashov, L. Torner, and H. Giessen, Opt. Lett. 37, 1058 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Minardi, F. Eilenberger, Y. V. Kartashov, A. Szameit, U. Röpke, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, H. Bartelt, S. Nolte, L. Torner, F. Lederer, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. V. Kartashov, V. A. Vysloukh, and L. Torner, Prog. Opt. 52, 63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. V. Kartashov, B. A. Malomed, V. A. Vysloukh, and L. Torner, Opt. Lett. 34, 770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kivshar, Y. S.

Kobelke, J.

S. Minardi, F. Eilenberger, Y. V. Kartashov, A. Szameit, U. Röpke, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, H. Bartelt, S. Nolte, L. Torner, F. Lederer, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krolikowski, W.

Kuhlmey, B. T.

Lederer, F.

S. Minardi, F. Eilenberger, Y. V. Kartashov, A. Szameit, U. Röpke, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, H. Bartelt, S. Nolte, L. Torner, F. Lederer, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Lederer, G. I. Stegeman, D. N. Christodoulides, G. Assanto, M. Segev, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rep. 463, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Malomed, B. A.

Marvin, H. H.

H. H. Marvin, Phys. Rev. 34, 161 (1912).
[CrossRef]

Minardi, S.

S. Minardi, F. Eilenberger, Y. V. Kartashov, A. Szameit, U. Röpke, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, H. Bartelt, S. Nolte, L. Torner, F. Lederer, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Morandotti, R.

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, A. R. Boyd, and J. S. Aitchison, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3383 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Neshev, D. N.

Nolte, S.

S. Minardi, F. Eilenberger, Y. V. Kartashov, A. Szameit, U. Röpke, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, H. Bartelt, S. Nolte, L. Torner, F. Lederer, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pertsch, T.

S. Minardi, F. Eilenberger, Y. V. Kartashov, A. Szameit, U. Röpke, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, H. Bartelt, S. Nolte, L. Torner, F. Lederer, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pricking, S.

Rasmussen, P. D.

Röpke, U.

S. Minardi, F. Eilenberger, Y. V. Kartashov, A. Szameit, U. Röpke, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, H. Bartelt, S. Nolte, L. Torner, F. Lederer, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rosberg, C. R.

Schuster, K.

S. Minardi, F. Eilenberger, Y. V. Kartashov, A. Szameit, U. Röpke, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, H. Bartelt, S. Nolte, L. Torner, F. Lederer, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Segev, M.

F. Lederer, G. I. Stegeman, D. N. Christodoulides, G. Assanto, M. Segev, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rep. 463, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Fleischer, T. Carmon, M. Segev, N. K. Efremidis, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 23902 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

F. Lederer, G. I. Stegeman, D. N. Christodoulides, G. Assanto, M. Segev, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rep. 463, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, A. R. Boyd, and J. S. Aitchison, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3383 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

F. Lederer, G. I. Stegeman, D. N. Christodoulides, G. Assanto, M. Segev, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rep. 463, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sukhorukov, A. A.

Szameit, A.

S. Minardi, F. Eilenberger, Y. V. Kartashov, A. Szameit, U. Röpke, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, H. Bartelt, S. Nolte, L. Torner, F. Lederer, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Torner, L.

M. Vieweg, S. Pricking, T. Gissibl, Y. V. Kartashov, L. Torner, and H. Giessen, Opt. Lett. 37, 1058 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Minardi, F. Eilenberger, Y. V. Kartashov, A. Szameit, U. Röpke, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, H. Bartelt, S. Nolte, L. Torner, F. Lederer, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. V. Kartashov, V. A. Vysloukh, and L. Torner, Prog. Opt. 52, 63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. V. Kartashov, B. A. Malomed, V. A. Vysloukh, and L. Torner, Opt. Lett. 34, 770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

S. Minardi, F. Eilenberger, Y. V. Kartashov, A. Szameit, U. Röpke, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, H. Bartelt, S. Nolte, L. Torner, F. Lederer, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vieweg, M.

Vogel, M. M.

T. Gissibl, M. Vieweg, M. M. Vogel, M. Aboud Ahmed, T. Graf, and H. Giessen, Appl. Phys. B 106, 521 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vysloukh, V. A.

Y. V. Kartashov, V. A. Vysloukh, and L. Torner, Prog. Opt. 52, 63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. V. Kartashov, B. A. Malomed, V. A. Vysloukh, and L. Torner, Opt. Lett. 34, 770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D. C.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

T. Gissibl, M. Vieweg, M. M. Vogel, M. Aboud Ahmed, T. Graf, and H. Giessen, Appl. Phys. B 106, 521 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

F. H. Bennet and J. Farnell, Opt. Commun. 283, 4069 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rep. (1)

F. Lederer, G. I. Stegeman, D. N. Christodoulides, G. Assanto, M. Segev, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rep. 463, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

H. H. Marvin, Phys. Rev. 34, 161 (1912).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

S. Minardi, F. Eilenberger, Y. V. Kartashov, A. Szameit, U. Röpke, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, H. Bartelt, S. Nolte, L. Torner, F. Lederer, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, A. R. Boyd, and J. S. Aitchison, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3383 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Fleischer, T. Carmon, M. Segev, N. K. Efremidis, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 23902 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Opt. (1)

Y. V. Kartashov, V. A. Vysloukh, and L. Torner, Prog. Opt. 52, 63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Illustration of an optofluidic waveguide array scaffolded by a photonic crystal fiber (PCF). (b) Microscope image of a fluid-filled PCF with five CCl4 strands acting as a nonlinear waveguide array.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimentally measured mode amplitude pattern for three different input peak powers starting from (a) the linear regime; (b) for 27 kW input peak power, up to the nonlinear dominated regime in (c) above 45 kW. Comparison with the simulated modes at the corresponding power given in the dimensionless power (d) for U=0.003; (e) U=0.025, and (f) U=0.048. Both measurement and simulation are carried out for a temperature of 6 °C and a device length L of 3 cm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimentally measured mode amplitude pattern of a 3 cm long optofluidic waveguide array consisting of five waveguides at a temperature of 16.5 °C. With increasing input peak power, nonlinear light localization in the central waveguide is apparent: (a) is showing the linear mode; (b) the mode pattern at an input power of 14 kW; (c) at 49 kW, and (d) in the nonlinear regime at 71 kW. Figures (e)–(h) show the corresponding simulations at (e) U=0.001; (f) U=0.038; (g) U=0.128, and (h) U=0.196, given in the dimensionless power U.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Profiles of solitons with a propagation constant of (a) b=0.52 and (b) b=0.70 supported by the optofluidic waveguide array at 6 °C.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Integral width W and (b) power U of soliton versus propagation constant b in an optofluidic array at 6 °C. Circles correspond to solitons depicted in Fig. 4.

Equations (2)

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iqξ=12(2qη2+2qζ2)σ(η,ζ)|q|2qR(η,ζ)q,
P=Uλ24π2n0n2.

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